Dual firmware image support

Most LigoWave devices have the dual firmware image feature.

If a device fails to perform a firmware boot from an active partition 3 times, it will set the second partition as the active one and will boot from the backup partition.

If a device fails to perform a firmware boot from both partitions 3 times, it will enter recovery mode. Then it will wait 5 minutes for a new firmware image via TFTP.

If no image is supplied to the device, it will try to boot images from both partitions again.

The following devices support the dual firmware image feature:

– LigoPTP RapidFire
– LigoDLB
– LigoDLB PRO
– LigoDLB ac
– Infinity

The following devices do not support this feature:

– NFT 2AC
– LigoDLB 5-15ac
– LigoDLB 5-20ac
– LigoDLB 5-90ac
– LigoDLB 5ac
– LigoDLB 6-15ac
– LigoDLB 6-20ac
– LigoDLB 6-90ac
– LigoDLB 6ac

Follow these steps to check the active and backup firmware versions on the devices:

Step 1. Log in into the device via SSH.
Step 2. Run the following command: /usr/share/lua/system_info.lua | grep fw

dual_boot_command

Information about how to check active firmware or how to activate backup firmware on the RapidFire device can be found here:
https://www.ligowave.com/wiki/faq/ligoptp-rapidfire-active-and-backup-firmwares/

LigoDLB: Is LigoDLB ac compatible with LigoDLB?

The main iPoll 3 proprietary protocol and the standard 802.11n protocol on LigoDLB devices with firmware version 7.53 or later are compatible with the new LigoDLB ac series of protocols—iPoll 3 and 802.11ac.

LigoPTP RapidFire: How to upgrade a device using SSH?

Introduction

There may be cases when it is beneficial or even necessary to update the firmware on a device without using the web browser. It is possible to update the firmware by using SSH and the fwupdate command. This article serves as a walk-through for getting the image onto the device and then flashing it.

Getting the image onto the device

The first step of flashing an image in the shell is getting the firmware image onto the device. There are two easy ways to do this: using SFTP to upload the image onto the device, or using wget from the device to download the image from an external source.

Instructions for Windows users

Step 1. Run WinSCP. Fill out the following fields:

Host name – device IP address (default 192.168.2.66)
Usernameadmin
Password – device login password (default: admin01)
Press Login to initiate an SSH connection to the device.

scp

Note: a warning message may appear after pressing Login. To continue the login process, press Yes.

warning

Step 2. In the next window, go to the /tmp directory. Then copy the PTP.MA-1.v7.51.13476.img file to the /tmp directory.

RapidFire_ssh_upgrade

Step 3. Run PuTTY. In the Host Name field, type the device’s IP address and press Open.

4

Note: a warning message may appear after pressing Open. To continue the login process, press Yes.

5

Step 4. Type in the username and the password in the next window.

Usernameadmin
Password – device’s password (default: admin01)

ligo-dlb-ssh-upgrade

Step 5. Navigate to the /tmp directory.

cd /tmp

ligo-dlb-ssh-upgrade01

Step 6. Rename the previously uploaded file to fwupdate.bin.

mv PTP.MA-1.v7.51.13476.img fwupdate.bin

RapidFire_ssh_upgrade1

Step 7. Type the command fwupdate –m to start the firmware upgrade.

fwupdate -m

ligo-dlb-ssh-upgrade2

Do not turn off the device during the firmware upgrade.

Step 8. If PuTTY closes automatically, this confirms the successful start of the upgrade.

Step 9. Once the firmware upgrade is complete, the device should respond to a ping using the configured IP address.

Instructions for Linux users

Download the latest firmware and open the Terminal.

Step 1. Rename the downloaded firmware to fwupdate.bin.

mv PTP.MA-1.v7.51.13476.img fwupdate.bin

Step 2. Copy the firmware image to the device’s /tmp directory.

scp /home/fwupdate.bin [email protected]:/tmp

Step 3. Log onto the device using SSH.

ssh [email protected]

Usernameadmin

Password – device’s password (default: admin01)

Step 4. Type in the command fwupdate –m to start the firmware upgrade.

fwupdate -m
Do not turn off the device during the firmware upgrade.

Step 5. Once the firmware upgrade is complete, the device should respond to a ping using the configured IP address.

LigoPTP RapidFire: How to test packet passthrough?

The following steps should be performed to identify the maximum packet size that can be sent between devices:

Equipment for testing:

Linux PC 1 and Linux PC 2 (Cisco switches can also be used instead of PCs).

Once the wireless link is connected, make sure that the ping works by sending small packets using the following command:

ping remote_device_ip

If a ping response is received, change the Linux PC Ethernet interface MTU size with the following command:

ifconfig eth0 mtu 3500
May require root privileges (on Ubuntu, use sudo).

In the provided example, the network interface is called eth0. However, it can be named eth1 or any similar name on other machines.

Once the MTU value is changed on both Linux PCs, run the ping command with the attributes -M do to send the packet without any fragmentation because the ping function performs fragmentation by default.

ping remote_device_ip -s 3500 -M do

-s indicates the packet size. The example is for 3,500 bytes.

MTU-testing1

When using a remote Linux PC, you can run the tcpdump tool. See the screenshot below:

MTU-Testing2

LigoPTP RapidFire: How to reset to default settings via LAN?

How to reset the RapidFire unit to its default settings via LAN
The computer with the Reset Tool running and the RapidFire device must be physically connected to the same LAN.
The Reset Tool for RapidFire devices does not have all of the devices in the network discovery function.

Follow these steps to run the LigoWave Reset Tool and reset the device to its default factory settings:

The Java package must be installed on the operating system for the Reset Tool to work.
To reset, the Reset Tool must be running with administrative privileges enabled.

Linux OS

The package should be installed by running the following command (Ubuntu/Debian version):

   sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre

Afterwards, click the right mouse button on the Reset Tool and select Open with Sun Java 6 Runtime or via the following command line:

sudo java -jar /home/reset-tool.ligowave.en.v1.2.55051.20170126.1017.jar

Once the Reset Tool starts, follow the steps as shown in the example with Windows 7.

Windows 7 OS

Provided bellow is an example on how to run the Reset Tool with an elevated access command prompt.

Download the Reset Tool locally to your computer from this link: reset-tool.ligowave.en.v1.2.55051.20170126.1017.jar

Create the Reset Tool folder on drive C:

RapidFire_reset_tool

Copy the Reset Tool executable into this folder:

RapidFire_reset_tool1

Click on Start, select All Programs and then choose Accessories:

RapidFire_reset_tool2

Click the right mouse button on Command Prompt to call out the context menu and choose Run as administrator:

RapidFire_reset_tool3

Command Prompt should now be running with administrator privileges:

RapidFire_reset_tool4

Type in the command cd c:\Reset Tool and hit the Enter key:

RapidFire_reset_tool5

Type in the command java -jar reset-tool.ligowave.en.v1.2.52133.20150721.1615.jar –V:

RapidFire_reset_tool6

If done successfully, the Reset Tool should launch with administrator privileges enabled:

RapidFire_reset_tool7

Steps to reset the device to its default settings:

Note: the new LigoWave Reset Tool is compatible with Deliberant APC devices.

Step 1. Once the Reset Tool starts, reboot the device (physically turn off and turn on the device) and wait until it automatically appears in the list.

Select the device and press Reset:

RapidFire_reset_tool8

When the device appears in the Reset Tool, 60 seconds are given to reset it. If this time is elapsed, the device will boot up normally.

Step 2. For a full device reset, the 4 last symbols of the serial number have to be entered.

RapidFire_reset_tool9

Step 3. The serial number can be found on the device’s casing, the box, using the device discovery, and in the UI status menu.

ligo-dlb-reset-tool4

Step 4. Status: Resetting indicates that the RapidFire device is being reset to the default settings:

RapidFire_reset_tool10

Step 5. Status: Booting device indicates that the RapidFire device has been successfully reset to the default factory settings and that it is starting to boot:

RapidFire_reset_tool11

Step 6. When the status Reset complete appears, you will be able to log into device:

RapidFire_reset_tool12

The default IP address of the RapidFire is: 192.168.2.66.

LigoPTP RapidFire: N connector polarity

N connector polarizations

It is important not to mix up V and H polarity when the external MiMo antenna is connected to the LigoPTP RapidFire device. The H polarity port is on the ETH2 side and the V polarity port is on the ETH1 PoE IN port side. Once the RF cable is connected, both N connectors have to be well isolated from water.

LigoPTP_5-N_RapidFire_Back_Label_3mm_2015-03-03

LigoPTP RapidFire: Active and Backup firmware

Active and Backup firmware

LigoPTP units have factory-installed default dual-boot firmware. With each new firmware upgrade, the backup firmware is overwritten.

If the current firmware is experiencing problems, click on Activate to enable the backup firmware. The Backup firmware will be activated after a reboot.

RapidFire Active and backup firmwares

LigoPTP RapidFire: Antenna alignment using sound

Antenna alignment using sound

The Antenna Alignment tool measures signal quality between the Master and Slave. To achieve the best results during antenna alignment, turn off all wireless networking equipment within range of the device, except for the device(s) with which you are trying to align the antenna. Watch the perpetually-updated signal strength as you adjust the antenna.

RapidFire sound allignment

Start/Stop – press this button to start or to stop antenna alignment.
Sound – once this option is enabled, a sound (beeping) will be produced during the aligning process, if the browser allows this. The device itself does not have an integrated speaker. The sound will play through the speakers of the PC or any other device that is running the Antenna Alignment tool.
Averaging – if this option is enabled, the graph will display the average signal strength of both vertical and horizontal polarities.

LigoPTP RapidFire: Site survey

Site survey

The Site Survey tool provides an overview of the wireless networks found within a local geographic area. With this tool, an administrator can scan for active wireless devices that are operating in Master or AP mode, check their operating protocol, frequency, bandwidth, and see the signal/noise levels, either listed in a table or represented by a graph.
To perform a site survey, click Start:

Imstallation_RapidFire-spectrum9

Graph Data – choose which site data to display in the graphs:

  • only local site
  • only remote site
  • combine both sites

The Graph Data option is hidden, if the Master device receives no data from the Slave unit or if the unit is operating as a Slave device.

Below is an illustration of an Only local site graph.

Imstallation_RapidFire-spectrum5

The following illustration shows a site survey graph with combined Master and Slave device results:

Imstallation_RapidFire-spectrum4

The illustration below shows a list of scanned wireless networks:

Imstallation_RapidFire-spectrum3

Site Survey does not scan for Slave radios because the beacons that carry wireless information are only dispatched by Master radios.

LigoPTP RapidFire: Spectrum analyzer

Spectrum analyzer

The Spectrum Analyzer tool provides detailed information about the signal levels of each LigoPTP unit antenna on every available frequency. This allows the administrator to choose the best available frequency/channel for unit operation. The frequency list depends on the country that the unit is operating in and the selected channel width. The Spectrum Analyzer also shows the noise levels in the available spectrum.

Spectrum Analyzer will temporarily disable the wireless link and will stop automatically after a full spectrum scan.

Click Start to perform the test:

RapidFire_spectrum_analyzer_new

The Spectrum Analyzer only runs on local devices. The spectrum graph looks as follows:

RapidFire_spectrum_analyzer_75

LigoPTP RapidFire: LED configuration

LED configuration

RapidFire_LEDS_configuration

LED – choose LED operation mode:
Always off – LED indication will be permanently disabled.
Always on – LED indication will be permanently enabled.
Auto off – LED will be disabled upon timeout.

LigoPTP RapidFire: Control of traffic over Ethernet ports

Ethernet traffic control

Configure the Ethernet traffic control on both Ethernet ports:

RapidFire_ethernet_traffic_control

Enable speed limit – slide to enable speed limitation on both Ethernet ports.
Incoming speed – use the slider or specify manually the maximum speed in megabits per second for incoming traffic. Traffic is shared among ETH1 and ETH2 ports, e.g. 120Mbps.

LigoPTP RapidFire: QoS configuration

QoS configuration

LigoPTP RapidFire 5 supports Layer 2 (802.1p) and Layer 3 (DSCP) QoS. With L2 QoS, data are prioritized based on VLANs, while with L3, data are prioritized based on IP addresses. Both types of QoS can run together or independently and traffic can be mapped onto 4 different queues for each type by applying strict or WRR policies. By having QoS in the link, users can prioritize mission-critical data and real time data that requires more capacity and a higher PPS rate. Maximum capacity for each queue is calculated dynamically according to the wireless link.

QoS functionality is only available when the device is operating as a Master.

QoS policy – choose the prioritization method: Strict or WRR.

RapidFire_qos5

Strict – if this scheduling policy is enabled, higher priority data are transmitted before transmitting any data from the lower priority queues. The value of this type of scheduling is that high priority packets are always handled before low priority packets, which is required for voice or video data.

WRR – if this scheduling policy is enabled, a set number of data packets is transmitted from each queue based on the round-robin algorithm. The higher the queue priority, the more packets are transmitted as the algorithm cycles through the queues in turn. This policy guarantees that every queue receives some attention from the port for transmitting packets.

QoS mapping precedence – select the QoS mapping priority: either L2 (802.1p) or L3 (DSCP). This option is available only if both types of QoS are enabled.

802.1p settings – enable L2 QoS and specify the priority queue [0–4] for each CoS value (0-7):

RapidFire_qos2

DSCP settings – enable L3 QoS and specify the priority queue [0–4] for each DSCP value (0-63):

RapidFire_qos3

 

RapidFire_qos4

Queue 1 has the lowest priority and queue 4 has the highest priority.

LigoPTP RapidFire: Link quality indicator

Link quality is a connection quality index that is expressed in percentages. It shows how effectively the system is running at the current time compared to the maximum theoretical system capacity. The link quality calculation also includes the percentages of transmitted packet retries and received packet drop. Link quality shows how many packets underwent transmission retries at the current data rate.

RapidFire_link_quality

LigoPTP RapidFire: How to test devices indoors?

There are a few simple steps for testing device configurations indoors or at very short distances between radios.

To test devices with N connectors, use RF cables with 50–60dB attenuators.

Do not mix up V and H polarities.

If the devices have integrated antennas, indoor tests should not be performed due to bad results from signal reflections. When choosing to test indoors, minimize possible damage by following these guidelines:

Set Tx power to 0.

Do not set the devices in clear line of sight.

Have both units facing the ceiling or ground. Check the signal levels which should be around -50dBm.

A signal level that is higher than -25 dBm can damage the Tx/Rx elements of the radio hardware.

LigoPTP RapidFire: How to download the troubleshooting file?

The troubleshooting file contains valuable information about the device’s configuration, log files, command outputs, and other data. The device automatically gathers troubleshooting information rather than requiring the user to gather each piece of information manually. This is helpful when submitting problems to the support team. Follow these steps to download the troubleshooting file via the GUI:

Step 1. Login to the LigoPTP RapidFire 5 GUI via a web browser:

RapidFire_troubleshoot1

Step 2. To download the troubleshooting file, navigate to the Maintenance tab, click on Troubleshooting in the side-bar menu, and then click Download:

RapidFire_troubleshoot

During the gathering of statistical data, the wireless link will be interrupted for a short period of time because the radio will be performing a site survey in the background.

RapidFire_troubleshoot2

Step 3. The troubleshooting file has been successfully downloaded to your computer:

RapidFire_troubleshoot3

LigoPTP RapidFire: How to upgrade the firmware?

The firmware upgrade is compatible with all of the configuration settings. When the device is upgraded to a newer version or the same version build, all of the system’s configuration are preserved after the upgrade.

Follow these steps to upgrade your device’s firmware:

Step 1. Click Update and select the proper firmware image in the Firmware Update pop-up window:

RapidFire_upgrade4

Step 2. Click Browse and select a file to upload:

RapidFire_upgrade1

Step 3. Once the firmware image is successfully uploaded, the Firmware Update window will display a table showing LigoPTP RapidFire 5 devices. It will now be possible to choose devices to upgrade. Both linked devices (i.e. Master and Slave) will be upgraded by default.

RapidFire_upgrade2

 Step 4. Click on Update to upgrade the device using the uploaded image. Both devices will be upgraded automatically. The Slave device is upgraded first.

RapidFire_upgrade3

LigoPTP RapidFire: What is the default IP address and password?

The default IP address is 192.168.2.66 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.

There is no default password and username for the LigoPTP RapidFire.

The LigoPTP unit’s remote wireless management interface is accessible only through HTTPS and SSH via IP: 192.168.111.1.

LigoPTP RapidFire: Backup configuration

How to back up the configuration from Master and Slave devices

The LigoPTP RapidFire Master device provides an option to back up the configurations of both devices onto one file.

Click Backup to download the configuration files of the entire LigoPTP link. The downloaded file will contain two configurations: the Master’s and the Slave’s.

RapidFire_Slava_Master_configuration_Backup

Read the full article on how to restore devices from a network configuration backup file here: Slave and Master Device Configuration from Network Configuration Backup.

LigoPTP RapidFire: 802.11AC auto data rates

Auto data rate

Auto data rate algorithm – a data rate is automatically selected by the mechanism that evaluates the current performance of the device based on the current signal level, data packet retry rate, and other parameters. The data rate fallback drops the MCS step by step until the data can be transferred. The auto data rate algorithm is not configurable and is always enabled.

RapidFire_auto_data_rate

This is a list of device bit rates:

MCS Index Channel Width, MHz Data rate, Mbps
0 5 3
1 5 7
2 5 10
3 5 14
4 5 21
5 5 28
6 5 32
7 5 36
8 5 43
0 10 7
1 10 14
2 10 21
3 10 28
4 10 43
5 10 57
6 10 65
7 10 72
8 10 86
0 20 14
1 20 28
2 20 43
3 20 57
4 20 86
5 20 115
6 20 130
7 20 144
8 20 173
0 40 30
1 40 60
2 40 90
3 40 120
4 40 180
5 40 240
6 40 270
7 40 300
8 40 360
9 40 400
0 80 65
1 80 130
2 80 195
3 80 260
4 80 390
5 80 520
6 80 585
7 80 650
8 80 780
9 80 866

LigoPTP RapidFire: Device discovery

How to discover all LigoPTP RapidFire devices in a network?

Device discovery – a feature that allows the LigoPTP unit to discover other devices within reach of a single multicast packet. Bonjour provides a simpler way of discovering devices in a local area network. If the device discovery feature is enabled, the unit will periodically multicast Bonjour service records using the SSDP protocol to the entire local network so as to notify of its presence. This allows the user to find devices without any external tools or programs.

Follow these steps to discover LigoPTP devices within the network:

Step 1.1. Enable the network discovery function on your Windows PC. Open Windows Explorer, enter the Network section and follow the automatic pop-up at the top of the screen:

Untitled1

Step 1.2. To enable, click Yes, turn on network discovery and file sharing for all public networks.

Untitled3

Users can also enable the network discovery function manually:

Step 2.1. go to Control Panel and click Choose homegroup and sharing options under the Network and Internet section:

Untitled9

Step 2.2. Proceed to Change advanced sharing settings:

Untitled8

Step 2.3. Select Turn on network discovery:

Untitled7

Step 3. All of the available devices should appear in the Network devices section. The scanned devices should now be ready for management:

RapidFire_device_discovery2

Right click on the device to open the context menu and select Properties to check the IP address and serial number. Users can also reach the device’s web page directly:

RapidFire_device_discovery3

MAX OS X

Step 1. Enable the Bonjour service in the Safari browser under Preferences → Advanced (the location depends on the version of the operating system).

safari-enable-bonjour

Step 2. Go to Bookmarks → Bonjour → Web-pages.

RapidFire_device_discovery1

Step 3. Click on the name of the radio (look for a friendly device name).

LigoPTP RapidFire: How to configure the wireless management interface?

Configure the additional management interface for easy access to the device’s web management interface after newly installing or rebooting a LigoPTP unit. Once the unit is turned on, it will switch to the remote wireless management mode.

The LigoPTP device’s remote wireless management interface is accessible only through HTTPS and SSH via IP: 192.168.111.1.

RapidFire_wireless_management_interface

SSID – assign the SSID for remote wireless management interface (default: LigoPTP-mng-[last 3 MAC octets]).
Security – choose the security options for remote wireless management access.
Passphrase – specify the passphrase for WPA/WPA2 personal security.
Activity interval – indicate the period of remote wireless management interface activity. If no user logs on to the LigoPTP web management interface for a specified amount of time, the remote wireless access mode will be automatically switched off (default: 5 minutes).

LigoPTP RapidFire: Channel width: 5/10/20/40/80MHz

Channel width – select the width of the operating radio channel. LigoPTP RapidFire supports 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80MHz channel widths.

Master and Slave devices must have the same configuration regarding channel width.

RapidFire_channel_widths

LigoPTP RapidFire: First-time login to a LigoPTP RapidFire device

The default IP address of the LigoPTP device is: 192.168.2.66.
There is no default password and username for LigoPTP RapidFire.

Connection via LAN cable

Follow these steps to access the LigoPTP RapidFire device for the first time:

Step 1. Configure the PC LAN card using a static IP address on the 192.168.2.0 subnet (e.g. 192.168.2.10 with mask 255.255.255.0).

Step 2. Open a web browser and enter the default IP address of the AP device—192.168.2.66:

default-ip

Step 3. Once the login page is loaded, agree to the LigoPTP disclaimer. Regulatory domain settings may differ depending on the selected operating country. Users are not allowed to select radio channels and RF output power values other than the permitted values for their respective country and regulatory domain:

RapidFire_first_time

Connection via the wireless management interface

Configure the additional management interface for easy access to the device’s web management interface after newly installing or rebooting a LigoPTP unit. Once the unit is turned on, it will switch to the remote wireless management mode.

The LigoPTP device’s remote wireless management interface is accessible only through HTTPS and SSH via IP: 192.168.111.1.

RapidFire_first_time1

APC: SSID failover

How to configure the SSID failover

The SSID failover option is used to add a backup access point SSID to the station.

The SSID failover section is only available in station mode (iPoll and 802.11n) in firmware version 7.00 or later.

Go to Configuration Wireless and put a check mark next to Enable SSID failover in the SSID failover section.

APC_ssid_failover

Use the Scan function to search for nearby devices. Once the scan is complete, select the relevant device from the drop-down list below the SSID field, and, if necessary, select the security protocol and enter the passphrase of the selected device.

APC_ssid_failover1

How SSID failover operates:

  • After reboot, the station always attempts to connect to the primary SSID first and then to the secondary one.
  • While in operation, the station connects to the secondary SSID when the connection with the primary one is lost.
  • If the Return to primary SSID function is turned off, the station will keep working on the secondary SSID.
  • If the Return to primary SSID function is turned on with a timer (Failover timeout, default—720 minutes), the station will attempt to connect to the primary SSID after the set time.
  • If the station is operating on the secondary SSID and loses connection with it, it will try to reconnect to the primary and then to the secondary SSID (e.g. after reboot).

APC: Sensitivity and noise balance

Sensitivity and noise balance

The Sensitivity/Noise balance slider lets users balance between signal sensitivity and noise immunity.

If the sensitivity and noise balance value is decreased, the device becomes more sensitive, thus allowing it to detect lower signals. However, this also means that it will experience more interference.

If this value is increased, the level of interference and noise is reduced, but this also means that the device will only be able to scan the main signal.

The value should be set to approx. 50–60 so as to not lose the connection with the main signal.

sensitivity noise

APC: AutoBA (Auto Block-Ack)

addba

Block Acknowledgements (BLOCK ACK)
Rather than sending an individual acknowledgement following each data frame, 802.11n introduces a technique of confirming a burst of up to 64 frames using a single Block ACK (BA) frame. Block ACK even contains a bitmap to selectively acknowledge individual frames of a burst (comparable to selective TCP acknowledgements). The use of combined acknowledgments can be requested by sending a Block ACK Request (BAR). Block ACK options are negotiated and confirmed using Action frames defined in 802.11e (WLAN QoS).

a-mpdu

 

Usage: AutoBA should be enabled by default. The only time when AutoBA should be disabled is when a decrease in performance and in stability with smart phones is identified.

 

APC: QoS on the Deliberant APC series of devices

Quality of Service (QoS) in detail

Firmware version x.95 and later have granted the Deliberant APC series of devices QoS functionality for the iPoll proprietary protocol. It is a major improvement in the quality control applicable to the different kinds of traffic.

QoS allows users to adjust the distribution of the 4 different types of traffic.  The process places the data into 4 queues that are then processed based on their priority levels. The prioritization policy is strict, which means that higher-priority data is sent first and lower priority is sent afterwards. Packets are prioritized using VLAN/CoS (layer 2) or IP/ToS/DSCP (layer 3) marks.

QoS allows LigoWave’s customers to provide higher-quality services with multiple types of traffic (data, voice, video, etc.) on the same network.

QoS

 

Figure 1. QoS graph

QoS can be adjusted using three sliders for the different kinds of traffic: voice, video, and best effort.

Voice traffic has the highest priority and will always be added to the queue first. Background traffic, which is without priority (priority 0) by default, is adjusted according to your preferences applicable to the other kinds of traffic. The background traffic margin is controlled by an algorithm that takes into account both the CPE currently connected to the access point and the current link capacity. The algorithm also automatically adjusts the values in accordance with the changing environments and user increase or decrease probability. The main control window is displayed in the picture below:

QoSv2

Figure 2. QoS control window

QoS is controlled over the access point, after which the settings are applied to all connected CPE.

APC: How to connect a single-polarity antenna to a MiMo device

A SISO antenna should be connected to the main N connector that is marked V.

sisoantenna1

The main N connector is on the opposite side of the LED RSSI indicators.

A 50 ohm terminator should be mounted onto the secondary N connector.

In the device wireless configuration section, select the SISO 1×1 mode.

sisoconf

APC: CLI (Command Line Interface)

Command Line Interface Management

The Command Line Interface, or CLI, software is a configuration shell for DLB-based devices. CLI is an alternative way of configuring the device. It is not intended to be the main device management method. Using CLI, the operator can test the authentication parameters, change the administrator’s password, reboot the device, reset the device to its default settings, see the device configuration, or view the device status.

All of the key shortcuts available in the CLI mode are listed in the table below:

CLI keys

CLI access

Use the SSH client application (e.g. Putty) to access the CLI of the WILI-S-based device.

Make sure that the SSH server is properly configured.

Login

Enter the administrator login information as displayed in the command prompt.

Default administrator login information:

  • User Name: admin
  • Password: admin01

After a successful login, enter the help command to get the list of available CLI commands:

help

logined

List of all CLI commands:

logout
reboot
reset-to-defaults
ping <ip>
telnet <ip>
show config
save config
show gateway
set gateway <gateway>
set user <user> password <encrypted_password> 
show software version
shell
linktest [frames <packet count>] [pkt-size <packet size>] [sessions <session count>] [peer <peer number>] [ip <remote IP>]
set virtual-ap <interface>
no virtual-ap <interface>
show interface list
show interface <interface> mac
show interface <interface> ip
set interface <interface> ip <ip/subnet mask>
show interface <interface> wireless-mode
set interface <interface> wireless-mode <ap, ipoll-ap, repeater, station, statio n-auto-ipoll> [peer-mac <MAC>]
set interface <interface> wds <on, off>
show interface <interface> ssid
set interface <interface> ssid <ssid>
show interface <interface> ssid-broadcast
set interface <interface> ssid-broadcast
no interface <interface> ssid-broadcast
show interface <interface> security
set interface <interface> security <open, wep64, wep128, wpa-psk, wpa2-psk, wpa-ent, wpa2-ent>
        wep64 key <1,2,3,4> pass <pass>
        wpa-psk/wpa2-psk encr <tkip, aes, auto> pass <pass>
        wpa-ent/wpa2-ent encr <tkip, aes, auto> pass <pass> radius <radius ip> port <radius port>
show interface <interface> ieee-mode
set interface <interface> ieee-mode <11a, 11b, 11bg, 11g, 11n, 11gn, 11an, 11bgn, 11n5>
show interface <interface> channel
set interface <interface> channel <channel>
set interface <interface> channel-auto <channel,channel,...>
set interface <interface> txpower <txpower>
set interface <interface> up
set interface <interface> down
show interface <interface> peers
show interface <interface> vlan-to-ssid
set interface <interface> vlan-to-ssid <vlan id>
no interface <interface> vlan-to-ssid <vlan id>
set interface <interface> vlan <vlan id>
no interface <interface> vlan <vlan id>
Examples of how to use CLI commands:

To change the wireless security setting, type the following command and press the Enter key:

set interface ra0 security open

To review the list of stations connected to the radio, type the following command and press Enter:

show interface ra0 peers

LCIpeers

To check the current radio SSID, type the following command and press Enter:

show interface ra0 ssid

CLIcommand

Type logout to leave the CLI mode:

logout

APC: What is a good signal level?

The recommended signal level range for optimum performance is between –35dBm and –60dBm. The link could also work with lower modulations between signal levels of –60dBm and –85dBm.

APC: How to configure Point-to-Multi-Point?

This article provides information on how to create a bridged Point to Multi-Point link using iPoll or 11n.

The recommended amount of stations is no more than 32.
In a bridged (layer 2) network, it is recommended to use WDS for 11n, so as to maintain compatibility with other vendors, and to use iPoll with APC devices.

PTMP-diagram

Step 1. Configure the network settings on the master (AP) device: change the device’s IP address (can be static or dynamic) and enable IP alias, if necessary:

ptmp-step1

If necessary, configure the settings found in System > Administration: device name, device location, coordinates (especially when using WNMS), username and password.

Step 2. Configure the wireless settings for iPoll Master:

– set the Wireless Mode to Access Point iPoll

– define the SSID

– set the Channel to Auto

– enable Security, if necessary

All other settings should be kept as default values:

ptmp-step2-1

Configure the wireless settings for an 11n AP:

– set the Wireless Mode to Access Point (auto WDS)

– define the SSID

– choose the IEEE mode:

     N for 802.11n compatible radios

     A/N mixed or B/G/N mixed for legacy radios in the network

– set the Channel to Auto

– enable Security, if necessary

– set the ACK timeout in accordance with the maximum distance from the station using the slider:

ptmp-step2-2

Step 3. Configure the network settings on the station: change the device’s IP address (can be static or dynamic) and enable IP alias, if necessary:

ptmp-step3

If necessary, configure the settings found in System > Administration: device name, device location, coordinates (especially when using WNMS), username and password.

Step 4. Configure the wireless settings for the station:

– select the country code

– set the wireless mode to Station (auto iPoll)

According to the access point:

– define the SSID

– enable Security if necessary

If the Station (auto iPoll) wireless mode is selected, the APC will act as a station and will automatically turn on the iPoll mode, if it detects that the selected AP is an iPoll Access Point.

ptmp-step4

Step 5. Monitor the connection.

Observe signal levels on the access point and the station. The recommended signal level range is between –35dBm and –60dBm.

On the access point: navigate to Status > Wireless:

ptmp-step5-1

On the station: navigate to the Status > Information page:

ptmp-step5-2

If it is a MIMO device, there will be two signal streams: one will be the Main and the other—the Aux.

Step 6. Optimize the channel size for best performance.

Before changing the auto channel option to some particular channel, it is recommended to perform a scan on the AP and on the station (found under Tools > Site Survey) and to also run the Spectrum Analyzer. Try to find the cleanest frequency for the device to operate on.

ptmp-step6

APC: How to reset the administrator password?

The only way to gain access to the web management system, if the administrator password is lost or forgotten, is to reset the APC’s configuration to its default factory settings.
A computer running the Reset Tool and the APC device must be physically connected to the same LAN network using a switch.

Follow these steps to run the Deliberant Reset Tool and to reset the device to its default factory settings:

The Java package must be installed on the operating system for the Reset Tool to run.
The Reset Tool must be running with administrative privileges enabled.

Linux OS

The package should be installed by running the following command (Ubuntu/Debian version):

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre

Afterwards, click the right mouse button on the Reset Tool file and select Open with Sun Java 6 Runtime from the context menu.

Windows 7 OS

A shortcut with the following data must be created on the Windows 7 operating system:

General path: %ProgramFiles%Javajre6binjava.exe" -jar "%HOMEPATH%/Desktop/reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
Example: "C:Program Files (x86)Javajre7binjava.exe" -jar "C:UserstesterDesktopreset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
reset-admin

Once the shortcut is created, it must be executed with administrative privileges enabled by right-clicking on it and selecting the option Run as Administrator from the context menu.

Step 1. Download the Reset Tool to your computer from this link.

Note: the Deliberant APC Reset Tool is not compatible with LigoDLB devices.

Step 2. Run the executable file. The Reset Tool will launch:

reset-tool

Step 3. Click Scan to search for all Deliberant devices available on the network:

reset-device-1

Step 4. Select the necessary device and press Reset:

reset-device-2

Step 5. The Reset Tool will notify the administrator when to physically turn off and turn on the device:

reset-device-3

Step 6. Physically turn off and then turn on the device.

Step 7. The device will now wait for the special reset packet. Once the special reset packet is received, the APC device will wait for 300 seconds to verify the reset procedure:

reset-device-4

Step 8. Physically turn off and then turn on the device once more.

Step 9. The APC device will reboot and reset to its default settings:

reset-device-5

Step 10. The APC device has now successfully been reset to its default factory settings.

reset-device-6

Step 11. The APC device should now be configured under its default factory settings. Click the right mouse button on the appropriate device and launch the GUI:

reset-device-7

The default IP address of the Deliberant APC is 192.168.2.66.
The default login name and password for the Deliberant APC are admin and admin01 respectively.

APC: How to test packet passthrough

The following steps should be performed to identify the maximum packet size that can be sent between devices:

Equipment for testing:

Linux PC 1 and Linux PC 2 (Cisco switches can also be used instead of PCs).

Once the wireless link is connected, make sure that the ping works by sending small packets using the following command:

ping remote_device_ip

MTU-testing1

The example is for 3,500 bytes.

If a ping response is received, change the Linux PC Ethernet interface MTU size with the following command:

ifconfig eth0 mtu 3500
This action may require root privileges (on Ubuntu, use sudo).

In the provided example, the network interface is called eth0. However, it can be named eth1 or any similar name on other machines.

Once the MTU value is changed on both Linux PCs, run the ping command with the attributes -M do to send the packet without any fragmentation because the ping function performs fragmentation by default. The user can run the tcpdump tool on the remote Linux PC. See the screenshot below:

MTU-Testing2

 

 

APC: IGMP snooping

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping is the process of listening in to IGMP network traffic. IGMP snooping can significantly reduce traffic in cases of media streaming and other bandwidth-intensive IP multicast applications. With IGMP snooping, devices can make intelligent multicast forwarding decisions by reducing network capacity requirements.

When is it necessary to enable IGMP snooping?

Example:

multipoint

Imagine a network that has an AP and several CPEs. An IPTV service is being provided to the clients. When a client decides to watch IPTV, the multicast traffic carrying TV data travels to the subscriber as well as to the rest of the CPEs connected to the AP. Such multicast flooding will reduce network bandwidth for the clients behind other CPEs. To avoid flooding the entire network, enable IGMP snooping on the AP (under Configuration > Network). Once the setting is enabled, multicast data will be sent to the specific subscribers only.

 

 

APC: The iPoll Protocol

Print

 

Intelligent Polling (or the iPoll Protocol) is a proprietary wireless mechanism customized for best performance in harsh environments.

Bandwidth allocation between the Master and the Slave devices is managed by the Master device. The Master device polls each Slave device sequentially. The Slave device only transmits the data “upstream” to the Master device when the Master device gives authorization via a “transmit grant”.

On iPoll, slower connections will not limit the speed for users who have better options to receive maximum throughput. The reason for this is the mechanism that works in multi-point scenarios.  When there are clients who have no or very few packets to send, the AP skips them and moves to the faster clients (those who have more data to send). Thus, users that have better signal levels (and less interference) maximize their performance, while others, who run on low modulations, are limited by the AP.

iPoll implements the airtime fairness mechanism by letting faster users to send more data than slower users, which means that faster users will usually have more time for sending and receiving data. The total throughput will therefore be higher. This is achieved by using a token mechanism between the AP and the Station. Tokens includes all of the sensitive control data for each device connected to the AP.

APC: How to reset the device to its default settings via LAN?

The only way to gain access to the web management system, if you forget the administrator password, is to reset your APC’s configuration to the default factory settings.
A computer running the Reset Tool and the APC device must be physically connected to the same LAN network using a switch.

Follow these steps to run the Deliberant Reset Tool and to reset the device to its default factory settings:

The Java package must be installed on the operating system for the Reset Tool to run.
The Reset Tool must be running with administrative privileges enabled.

Linux OS

The package should be installed by running the following command (Ubuntu/Debian version):

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre

Afterwards, click the right mouse button on the Reset Tool file and select Open with Sun Java 6 Runtime from the context menu.

Windows 7 OS

A shortcut with the following data must be created on the Windows 7 operating system:

General path: %ProgramFiles%Javajre6binjava.exe" -jar "%HOMEPATH%/Desktop/reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
Example: "C:Program Files (x86)Javajre7binjava.exe" -jar "C:UserstesterDesktopreset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
reset-admin

Once the shortcut is created, it must be executed with administrative privileges enabled by right-clicking on it and selecting the option Run as Administrator from the context menu.

The Reset Tool allows administrators to easily restore the default configurations of the devices. Follow these steps to reset the device to its default settings:

Step 1. Download the Reset Tool to your computer from reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.

Note: the Deliberant APC Reset Tool is not compatible with LigoDLB devices.

Step 2. Run the executable file. The Reset Tool will launch:

reset-tool

Step 3. Click Scan to search for all Deliberant devices available on the network:

reset-device-1

Step 4. Select the necessary device and press Reset:

reset-device-2

Step 5. The Reset Tool will notify the administrator when to physically turn off and turn on the device:

reset-device-3

Step 6. Physically turn off and then turn on the device.

Step 7. The device will now wait for the special reset packet. Once the special reset packet is received, the APC device will wait for 300 seconds to verify the reset procedure:

reset-device-4

Step 8. Physically turn off and then turn on the device once more.

Step 9. The APC device will reboot and reset to its default settings:

reset-device-5

Step 10.  The APC device has now successfully been reset to its default factory settings.

reset-device-6

Step 11.  The APC device should now be configured under its default factory settings. Click the right mouse button on the appropriate device and launch the GUI:

reset-device-7

The default IP address of the Deliberant APC is 192.168.2.66.
The default login name and password for the Deliberant APC are admin and admin01 respectively.

APC: How to discover all Deliberant devices in the network?

The Reset Tool allows administrators to discover all Deliberant devices present in the local area network and to easily restore the default configurations of these devices.

Follow these steps to discover Deliberant device in the network:

Step 1. Download the Reset Tool to your computer from reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.

Note: the Deliberant APC Reset Tool is not compatible with LigoDLB devices.

Step 2. Run the executable file. The Reset Tool will launch:

reset-tool-initial

Step 3. Click Scan to search for all Deliberant devices available on the network:

reset-tool-initial-scan

Step 4. The Reset Tool will now display all Deliberant devices available on your network. The scanned devices will now be ready to be managed:

reset-tool-results

APC: How to download the troubleshooting file?

The troubleshooting file is an extremely useful resource for the technical support team as it contains valuable information about the device’s configuration, routes, log files, command outputs, and other important information.

Follow these steps to download the troubleshooting file via the GUI:

Step 1. Log in to the APC GUI via a web browser:

Login

Step 2. To download the troubleshooting file, navigate to System > Administration:

Apc-troubleshooting-file1

Step 3. Click the Download button next to Download troubleshooting file:

Apc-troubleshooting-file2

Step 4. The troubleshooting file should now be downloaded to your computer:

Apc-troubleshooting-file3

APC: How to upgrade the firmware?

This article explains how to properly upgrade an APC device’s firmware.

Follow these steps to upgrade your device:

It is highly recommended to use firmware images of the same version to guarantee successful link performance between APC units.

Step 1. Launch the device’s GUI and navigate to System > Firmware upgrade:

Apc-fw-update1

Step 2. Press Upload firmware and select the firmware file from your computer:

Apc-fw-update2

Step 3. Once the firmware is successfully uploaded on to the APC device, click Upgrade:

Apc-fw-update3

Do not switch off and do not disconnect the device from the power supply during the firmware upgrade process because the device may become damaged.

APC: First-time login to an APC device

The default IP address of the LigoPTP device is 192.168.2.66.
There is no default password and username for the APC device.

Follow these steps to access the Deliberant APC device for the first time:

Step 1. Configure your PC using a static IP address on the 192.168.2.0 subnet (e.g. 192.168.2.10 with mask 255.255.255.0).

Step 2. Open a web browser and enter the default IP address of the AP device—192.168.2.66:

 default-ip

Step 3. Once the login page is loaded, enter the default administrator login information (login: admin; password: admin01) and click Login:

Login

Step 4. Agree to the disclaimer of the Deliberant APC device. Regulatory domain settings may differ depending on the selected operating country. Users are not allowed to select radio channels and RF output power values other than the permitted values for their respective country and regulatory domain:

Disclaimer

 

APC: Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)

The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a measure that compares the signal level to the amount of noise present in the medium of transmission. The value is expressed in Decibel (dB).

The range of SNR may vary between 1dB and 30dB. The optimum SNR range is 18–30dB. 18dB is the minimum value at which the device can still operate and deliver relatively optimum performance. Values lower than 18dB can drastically reduce the performance.

SNR is reported for each chain (V and H polarities). If only one antenna is connected, the reported SNR values will show up as 20/1 or 1/20. The maximum SNR value is 30dB, which indicates the best link quality. Anything that is above 18-20dB means that the link is working properly. Anything below those values may indicate that there is interference or that the selected settings are not suited for the current radio environment.

SNR2

If one of the SNR values is equal to 1, it usually means that no data is passing through the second antenna’s polarity (this usually happens when there is no traffic present on the link) or when the RSSI is very bad on that polarity.

Example of a bad link quality and SNR:

BadSNR1

APC: Data rate fallback and auto data rate

Dynamic algorithm

A dynamic algorithm (or auto data rate) is when a data rate is selected automatically by the mechanism that evaluates the performance of the device based on the current signal level, rate of data packet retry, and other relevant parameters.

Data rate fallback is the reduction of the data rate. When it is operating in Normal mode, it gradually reduces the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) until the data can pass through. When the data rate fallback is set to Aggressive, the MCS is decreased by 2 steps until it can pass the data through. The dynamic algorithm and aggressive fallback have to be used in noisy environments.

ddataratedynamicaggresive4

Fixed algorithm

A fixed algorithm is when a data rate is a fixed value (MCS).

The main difference between the dynamic algorithm and the fixed algorithm is that the fixed algorithm will always try to send data under the selected MCS rather then decreasing the currently selected MCS to the value at which the retry rate is lower.

The fixed algorithm does not take into account signal level or the amount of retried packets.  The data rate is only decreased when the device cannot send the current data at the fixed data rate. The data rate fallback mechanism turns on in such a case.

Data rate fallback operating in Normal mode gradually reduces the MCS until the data can pass through. When the data rate fallback is set to Aggressive, the MCS is decreased by 2 steps until it can pass the data through. A fixed data rate is best suited for operation in clean radio environments.

dataratefixedaggressive2

 

 

APC: How to find OIDs?

Note: the Net-SNMP package and the SNMP-walk tool are required to find all OIDs from the selected device.
For Windows users

Step 1. Download it from the Net-SNMP website and install.

Step 2. Open the cmd command prompt window and run the following command:

snmpwalk.exe -c public -v2c -On 192.168.2.66

SNMPwalk1

Step 3. There is also a command for using external MIBs:

snmpwalk.exe -c public -v2c 192.168.2.66 MIB [MIB name]

SNMPWALKMIBS1

Download Deliberant MIBs from here.

For Linux users

Step 1. Install the SNMP packages:

apt-get install snmp

Step 2. Open the terminal and run the following command:

snmpwalk 192.168.2.66 -c public -v2c

Step 3. To add external MIBs, use the provided command:

snmpwalk 192.168.2.66 -c public -v2c -m /home/DELIBERANT-MIB

Download Deliberant MIBs from here.

 

APC: DMZ configuration

How to configure the DMZ

Step 1. Set up the wireless mode. The provided example is for the Access Point (Auto WDS) wireless mode.

DMZAP2

Step 2. Set the network mode to Router and then set the IP addresses for the DHCP server as well as the addresses for the wired WAN.

DMZRouter1

Step 3. Under Port Forwarding, tick the Enable DMZ option. Then, in the IP address field, enter the LAN IP that you wish to reach via the DMZ.

DMZ1

The main function is to provide reachability to the LOCAL LAN devices from the WAN when all ports are redirected to one IP address (I.E. 192.168.3.1).

How to test:

Step 1. Two computers are needed in order to test the DMZ function. In this case, they will be referred to as PC1 and PC2.

Step 2. PC1 should be connected to the WAN port of the device with an IP from subnet 2. In this case, it was 192.168.2.90. PC2’s LAN IP address will be provided from the device’s DHCP server from subnet 3. In this case, it is 192.168.3.1.

Step 3. Once the first two steps are completed, try to enter the access point from PC1 using 192.168.2.66. The DMZ function should apply and the user should be redirected to the LAN subnet IP address 192.168.3.1—the one that was entered into the IP address field.

APC: Wireless Bridge and ARPNAT

A bridge is a device that separates two or more network segments within one logical network (e.g. a single IP subnet). The job of the bridge is to examine the destination of the data packets one at a time and to decide whether or not to pass the packets to the other side of the Ethernet segment. The result is a faster and quieter network with less collisions. In the OSI model, bridging acts in the first two layers, below the network layer.

The principle of ARPNAT is similar to NAT regarding IP networks, except that NAT works one layer deeper. Instead of translating the IP address, the router translates between the MAC hardware address on its side. If something on the wired side of the router makes an ARP request for the MAC address of an IP on the wireless side, then the router forwards the request as if it came from the router. When the response comes back, it mangles that too. Instead of passing back the real MAC (which lives on the wireless network), the router gives its own wired MAC address. Then, when it receives the frames for the IP addresses on the wireless network, it forwards them through. It does this to both sides of the bridge.

The following is an example of ARPNAT:

1. The Client PC asks what the MAC address of 192.168.1.67 is and asks to tell this to 192.168.1.5. This is a broadcast ARP request over wired Ethernet.
2. APC 5M (works as a STA) sees the ARP request and forwards the broadcast onto the wireless network as “What is the MAC address of 192.168.1.67. Tell it to 192.168.1.66” (this is APC 5M’s IP; remember that the Client was 192.168.1.5, so it is changed now).
3. APC 5M (works as an AP), which has the IP 192.168.1.67, responds with a result that is sent to 192.168.1.66. For example, the result is 00:19:23:66:12:56.
4. APC 5M (works as a STA) receives the response. It does some modifications and sends that request back to the Client PC as “192.168.1.67 is at 00:12:23:55:66:77“. This MAC is the MAC address of the APC 5M (STA) itself.
5. So, if the Client wants to talk to the AP, it will talk to APC 5M (STA), which will forward those frames to the AP.

When a bridge is installed between two networks, it gathers the packets from one network and repeats them to the other and vice-versa. This way, the nodes on one network can talk to the nodes on the other. Bridges also have features such as broadcast filtering, allowing for greater efficiency and reduced traffic. Therefore, in its most simple form, a bridge is a two-port network device that connects two network segments. Some advanced implementation of bridging can monitor traffic and determine which nodes are on which segment and later use this information while forwarding packets. The main factor to note is the fact that bridging takes place in the data-link layer of the OSI reference model.

APC: Wireless network planning

There are some fundamental rules in wireless network planning for hotspots.  In the case of 2.4GHz, there are only 3 non-overlapping channels: 1, 6, and 11.

All large wireless networks can be built from many clusters.  One network cluster is formed from 3 different frequency cells. One cell is served by one access point.

 

cels1

Adjacent frequencies have to be different and separated by one neighboring frequency. This is an important aspect in wireless network planning. This type of network planning helps to avoid interference and improves link quality.

In the case of a 5GHz Wi-Fi network, more frequency channels are used. It helps to choose adjacent frequencies that are separated by two or three neighboring frequencies because this improves the quality of the network. 5Ghz network clusters could be formed from 7 or more different frequency cells.

It is necessary to know the required throughput when choosing the number of users to be managed by one AP. Throughput is dependent on the number of users connected to the base station. Ideally, an AP could provide 180Mbps with 30 connected stations. The throughput per station would be a 6Mbps simplex and a 3Mbps duplex.

APC: How to test devices indoors?

There are a few simple steps for testing device configurations indoors or at very short distances between radios.

To test devices with N connectors, use RF cables with 50–60dB attenuators.

Do not mix up V and H polarities.

If the devices have integrated antennas, indoor tests should not be performed due to bad results from signal reflections. When choosing to test indoors, minimize possible damage by following these guidelines:

Set Tx power to 0. Signal levels should be set to approx. –50dBm.

Signal levels higher than –25dBm can damage radio hardware elements.

If signal levels at 0 Tx power are still too high, place the devices out of clear line of sight. Putting cardboard or foam between the devices or pointing both devices at the ceiling may also help.

 

 

 

APC: How to reset the device to its default settings via ping?

Devices that are missing the reset button and devices with a reset button that is only accessible by disassembling the housing require an external process for easy reset to default factory settings.

The discovery daemon is launched during device startup—once the Ethernet interface drivers are loaded. The daemon suspends the startup process for 3 seconds and waits for the ICMP echo request packet of 369 bytes. If the packet is received, the discovery daemon resets the device to its default configuration.

It is recommended to use a simple switch (without routing) because Windows loses connection with the device during device reboot.

For Linux users, follow these steps in order to reset to the device to its default settings:

Step 1. Turn the device off.

Step 2. Obtain the device’s MAC address.

Step 3. Connect a PC to the same physical subnet as the device.

Note: it is usually easier to use a switch between the radio and the computer.

Step 4. Execute the arp -s command to assign the IP address (the IP address should be from the same subnet as the PC) to the device’s MAC address:

arp -s <IP address to assign> <device MAC address>

Step 5. Start pinging the device:

ping <IP address> -s 369

For Windows users:

ping <IP address> -l 369 -t -w 200

Run the CMD command line as an administrator.

Step 6. Power up the device and wait for about 1 minute or more (depending on the device hardware).

Step 7. Stop pinging the device and let it boot up as usual. The device should boot with its default settings.

APC: Old firmware upgrade

Introduction

There may be cases when it is beneficial or even necessary to update a device’s firmware without using the web browser. It is possible to update the firmware using SSH and the fwupdate command. This article is a walk-through for getting the image onto the device and then flashing it.

Getting the image on to the device

The first step of flashing an image using shell is getting the firmware image onto the device. There are two easy ways to do this: to SFTP the image onto the device or to use wget from the device to download the image from an external source.

Instructions for Windows users

Step 1. Run WinSCP. Fill in the following fields in the window:

Host name – device’s IP address (default 192.168.2.66)
Usernameadmin
Password – device’s password (default: admin01)
Press Login to initiate an SSH connection with the device.

scp

Note: after pressing Login, a warning message may appear. To continue the login process, press Yes.

warning

Step 2. Once a new window appears, navigate to the TMP directory. Then copy the file fwupdate.bin to the TMP directory.

3.1

Step 3. Run PuTTY. In the Host Name field, type in the device’s IP address and press Open.

4

Note: after pressing Open, a warning message may appear. To continue the login process, press Yes.

5

Step 4. Type in the username admin and the password into the new window.

Usernameadmin
Password – device’s password (default: admin01)

6

 Step 5. Type in the command shell and press enter. The hardware should now be ready to start with the firmware upgrade.

7

Step 6. Navigate to the /tmp directory

cd /tmp

8

Step 7. Rename the previously uploaded file to fwupdate.bin.

mv DLB-CPE_24.v5.23.20642.080822.164518.img fwupdate.bin

9

Step 8. Type in the command fwupdate –m to start the firmware upgrade.

fwupdate -m

10

Do not turn off the device during the firmware upgrade.

 Step 9. A message will confirm a successful upgrade.

/sbin/fwupdate: About to run firmware update

11

Step 10. Once the firmware upgrade is complete, the device should respond to a ping under its configured IP address.

Instructions for Linux users

Download the latest firmware and open the Terminal.

Step 1. Rename the downloaded firmware to fwupdate.bin.

mv DLB_APC-5M.FWBD-0100.v5.94-2.rt2880.Deliberant.APC.en_US.47825.130819.212805_Deliberant.5.94-2.47839.FWBD-0100.cfg.img fwupdate.bin

Step 2. Copy the firmware image to the device’s /tmp directory.

scp /home/fwupdate.bin [email protected]:/tmp

Step 3. Log on to the device via SSH.

ssh [email protected]

Usernameadmin

Password – device’s password (default: admin01)

Step 4. Type in the command shell and press Enter.

shell

Step 5. Type in the command fwupdate –m to start the firmware upgrade.

fwupdate -m
Do not turn off the device during the firmware upgrade.

Step 6. Once firmware recovery is complete, the device should respond to a ping under its configured IP address.

 

APC: MTU size

The APC 5M V2 and V3 series of products support packet sizes of up to 3,790 bytes without any external configuration.

The APC 5M series of products support packet sizes of up to 1,532 bytes without any external configuration.

The APC 2M series of products support packet sizes of up to 1,532 bytes without any external configuration.

APC: Firmware recovery using TFTP

Introduction

Starting with firmware version 5.93, DLB APC devices will be equipped with firmware recovery functionality. Only newly purchased products with firmware version 5.93 or later will have firmware recovery via TFTP functionality. APC upgrades from older versions to 5.93 will not support the recovery feature. As of firmware version 5.94-6, the recovery feature is introduced with the firmware upgrade. This applies only to the APC 5M V2 and 2M series.

Contact our support team at [email protected] to find out whether your APC unit supports firmware recovery via TFTP.

Products that may need a firmware recovery procedure:

  • DLB APC 2M series
  • DLB APC 5M V2 series

Other new products (the APC Propeller, APC Button, and APC ECHO 5) have dual-firmware image support, so it is very difficult to damage both firmware images.

When is recovery required?

Recovery is required when the firmware installed on the device’s flash memory becomes corrupted. This happens when the device is turned off during a firmware upgrade (e.g. power cuts, cable problems, etc). When the device cannot boot, it goes into recovery mode.

If the device is not accessible over the web, there is no ping response, and the Reset Tool cannot find the device, perform the firmware recovery procedure.

Firmware recovery using TFTP

Step 1. Download, install, and run a TFTP server on your PC.

TFTPD 32 for Windows:

https://bitbucket.org/phjounin/tftpd64/downloads

TFTPD-HPA for Linux:

Use a command from the Linux shell:

 sudo apt-get install tftpd-hpa

Step 2. Download the newest appropriate firmware from the LigoWave website here.

Step 3. Rename the downloaded firmware file to fwupdate.bin and move it to the TFTP server directory.

It is important to change the file extension from .img to .bin. Otherwise, the device will not download the file from the TFTP server.

Step 4. Turn the device off.

Step 5. Connect the device to a PC directly or through a switch using a cable.

Step 6. Set the PC network adapter IP address to 192.168.2.1 (it must be a TFTP server address).

Tftp-1

Step 7. Turn on the device. If everything is configured correctly, the TFTP server will notify about the firmware transfer.

Tftp-2

Step 8. Wait 5 minutes or less until the firmware is properly flashed.

Do not turn off the device during firmware recovery.

Step 9. Once firmware recovery is complete, the device should respond to a ping under its configured IP address.

During firmware recovery, all of the device’s system configurations will be preserved, so there is no need to reset the device to its default settings.

APC: Maximum user support for 11n

All products within the APC series that are running in Access Point (Auto WDS) mode support a maximum of 127 CPEs.

The recommended maximum number of CPEs is 70.

APC: Maximum CPE support using iPoll

All products within the APC series that are running in Access Point iPoll mode support a maximum of 127 stations.

The recommended maximum number of stations is 70.

Infinity: Network and wireless statistics

The Statistics page is divided into two sections. It displays the network interface counters as well as the traffic graphs of the wired and wireless interfaces.

The interface counters display a table of interface statistics.

nft-wireless--network-statistics3

Interface – displays the radio interfaces, VAPs, and SSIDs (in brackets)
MAC address
– displays the MAC address of a particular interface.
Tx data – displays the amount of transmitted data.
Rx data – displays the amount of received data.
Tx packets – displays the number of transmitted packets.
Rx packets – displays the number of received packets.
Tx errors – displays the number of TX errors.
Rx errors – displays the number of RX errors.

The Wireless page displays the receive/transmit statistics for the APs and the successfully-linked wireless clients (click the Counters tab to view the Rx/Tx information of the connected clients):

 

nft-wireless--network-statistics

If the access point has more than one wireless interface (VAPs), the appropriate number of tables with the information about the connected wireless clients will be displayed.

Station – displays the MAC address and the friendly name of the successfully connected wireless client.
IP address – displays the IP address of the wireless client.
Signal – displays the signal strength of the access point’s main and auxiliary antennas that the station communicates with (in dBm).
Tx/Rx rate – displays the transmit/receive data rates (in Mbps).
Tx/Rx CCQ, % – displays the wireless Client Connection Quality (CCQ). The value (in percentages) shows how effectively the bandwidth is used with respect to the maximum possible bandwidth.
Protocol – displays the protocol, under which the access point communicates with a particular station.
Link uptime – displays the duration of a particular session.

Note: status is not available in the Wireless section, if the device is operating in Station (WDS/iPoll) or Station (ARPNAT) mode. In this case, all of the necessary information about the wireless connection with the AP unit can be found in the wireless table on the Information page.

Detailed Radio statistics per Peer:

 

nft-wireless--network-statistics1

Station – displays the MAC address and the friendly name of the successfully connected wireless client.
IP address – displays the IP address of the wireless client.
Tx data – displays the amount of transmitted data.
Rx data – displays the amount of received data.
Tx packets – displays the number of transmitted packets.
Rx packets – displays the number of received packets.
Tx retry, % – displays the amount of retried packets (in percentages).
Rx drop, % – displays the amount of dropped packets (in percentages).

Infinity: How to upgrade a device via SSH?

Introduction

There may be cases when it is beneficial or even necessary to update the firmware on a device without using the web browser. It is possible to update the firmware by using SSH and the fwupdate command. This article serves as a walk-through for getting the image onto the device and then flashing it.

Getting the firmware onto the device

The first step of flashing an image in the shell is getting the firmware image onto the device. There are two easy ways to do this: using SFTP to upload the image onto the device, or using wget from the device to download the image from an external source.

Instructions for Windows users

Step 1. Run WinSCP. Fill out the following fields:

Host name – device IP address (default 192.168.2.66)
Usernameadmin
Password – device login password (default: admin01)
Press Login to initiate an SSH connection to the device.

scp

Note: a warning message may appear after pressing Login. To continue the login process, press Yes.

warning

Step 2. In the next window, go to the /tmp directory. Then copy the fwupdate.bin file to the /tmp directory.

nft-upgrade-via-ssh

Step 3. Run PuTTY. In the Host Name field, type the device’s IP address and press Open.

4

Note: a warning message may appear after pressing Open. To continue the login process, press Yes.

5

Step 4. Type in the username and the password in the next window.

Usernameadmin
Password – device’s password (default: admin01)

ligo-dlb-ssh-upgrade

Step 5. Navigate to the /tmp directory.

cd /tmp

ligo-dlb-ssh-upgrade01

Step 6. Rename the previously uploaded file to fwupdate.bin.

mv AP.QD-1.v7.50.7780.img fwupdate.bin

nft-upgrade-via-ssh1

Step 7. Type the command fwupdate –m to start the firmware upgrade.

fwupdate -m

ligo-dlb-ssh-upgrade2

Do not turn off the device during the firmware upgrade.

Step 8. If PuTTY closes automatically, this confirms the successful start of the upgrade.

Step 9. Once the firmware upgrade is complete, the device should respond to a ping using the configured IP address.

Instructions for Linux users

Download the latest firmware and open the Terminal.

Step 1. Rename the downloaded firmware to fwupdate.bin.

mv AP.QD-1.v7.50.7780.img fwupdate.bin

Step 2. Copy the firmware image to the device’s /tmp directory.

scp /home/fwupdate.bin [email protected]:/tmp

Step 3. Log onto the device via SSH.

ssh [email protected]

Usernameadmin

Password – device’s password (default: admin01)

Step 4. Type in the command fwupdate –m to start the firmware upgrade.

fwupdate -m
Do not turn off the device during the firmware upgrade.

Step 5. Once the firmware upgrade is complete, the device should respond to a ping using the configured IP address.

Infinity: BA window size

BA window size (found under Wireless configuration > Advanced radio settings) specifies the size of the Block ACK window. Individual acknowledgements are transmitted after every MPDU packet. The BA window size value allows to acknowledge multiple MPDUs together as a single BA frame.

Block ACK has a bitmap size of 64×16 bits. If the level of interference is high, it is recommended to set the BA window size to 8 to reduce packet loss and the amount of retries. If the environment is clean, it is recommended to set the BA window size to 64 for maximum performance.

nft-ba-window-size

Infinity: How to upgrade the firmware?

It is highly recommended to use the latest firmware, which is made available on the official website here.

This article discusses how to properly upgrade the firmware on NFT equipment. Follow these steps to upgrade your device’s firmware:

Step 1. The current version of the device’s firmware is shown in the upper left corner of the web interface. To update the device’s firmware, click the Update link found at the name of the current firmware:

nft-firmware-upgrade

Step 2. Select the firmware file from your computer and press Upload:

nft-firmware-upgrade1

The new firmware image is uploaded onto the controller’s temporary memory. It is necessary to save the firmware onto the device’s permanent memory.

Wait until the firmware is uploaded:

nft-firmware-upgrade2

Step 3. Once the firmware is successfully uploaded onto the NFT device, click Upgrade:

nft-firmware-upgrade3

Step 4. The upgrade should take approx. 2 minutes. The device will reboot at the end.

nft-firmware-upgrade4

Do not turn off and do not disconnect the device from the power supply during firmware upgrade. Otherwise, the device could be damaged.

Infinity: How to download troubleshooting file?

The troubleshooting file contains valuable information about the device’s configuration, log files, command outputs, and other data. The device automatically gathers troubleshooting information rather than requiring the user to gather each piece of information manually. This is helpful when submitting problems to the support team. Follow these steps to download the troubleshooting file via the GUI:

Step 1. Login to the NFT GUI via a web browser:

nft-troubleshoot1

Step 2. To download the troubleshooting file, navigate to the Maintenance tab, click on Troubleshooting in the side-bar menu, and then click Download:

nft-torubleshoot2

Step 3. The troubleshooting file has been successfully downloaded to your computer:

nft-torubleshoot-3

Infinity: How to reset the NFT 1Ni using the reset button?

NFT 1Ni devices have a reset button near the Ethernet port. To reset the device, hold the button for 5 seconds and then release it. When the reset process starts, the device’s LEDs will begin blinking.

There is no need to physically reboot the device during reset using the reset button.

Infinity: How to reset the administrator’s password using LAN?

The only way to gain access to the web management system, if the administrator password is lost or forgotten, is to reset the NFT’s configuration to its default factory settings.
A computer running the Reset Tool and the NFT device must be physically connected to the same LAN network using a switch.
The Reset Tool for NFT devices does not have all of the devices stored in the network discovery function.
The Java package must be installed on the operating system for the Reset Tool to run.
The Reset Tool must be running with administrative privileges enabled.

Follow these steps to run the LigoWave Reset Tool and to reset the device to its default factory settings:

Linux OS

The package should be installed by running the following command (Ubuntu/Debian version):

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre

Afterwards, click the right mouse button on the Reset Tool file and select Open with Sun Java 6 Runtime from the context menu.

Windows 7 OS

A shortcut with the following data must be created on the Windows 7 operating system:

General path: %ProgramFiles%\Java\jre6\bin\java.exe" -jar "%HOMEPATH%/Desktop/reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
Example: "C:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jre7\bin\java.exe" -jar "C:\Users\tester\Desktop\reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.ja
reset-admin

Once the shortcut is created, it must be executed with administrative privileges enabled by right-clicking on it and selecting the option Run as Administrator from the context menu.

Step 1. Download the Reset Tool to your computer from reset-tool.ligowave.en.v1.2.55051.20170126.1017.jar.

Step 2. Run the executable file. The Reset Tool will launch:

ligo-dlb-reset-tool-main

Step 3. Once the Reset Tool launches, reboot the device (physically turn off and turn on the device) and wait until it automatically appears. Then select the device and press Reset:

nft-reset-tool-01

When the device appears in the Reset Tool, the user is given 60 seconds to reset it. If the time is elapsed, the device boots up as usual.

Step 4. For a full device reset, the 4 last symbols of the serial number have to be entered.

nft-reset-tool1

 Step 5. The serial number can be found on the device’s casing, the box, using the device discovery, and in the UI status menu.

nft-reset-tool4

Step 6. Status: Resetting indicates that the NFT device is being reset to the default settings:

nft-reset-tool2

Step 7. Status: Booting device indicates that the NFT device has been successfully reset to the default factory settings and that it is starting to boot:

nft-reset-tool3

The default IP address of the NFT device is: 192.168.2.66.
The default login and password for the NFT are admin and admin01 respectively.

Infinity: Auto data rate

The auto data rate algorithm is when a data rate is selected automatically by the mechanism that evaluates the performance of the device based on the current signal level, rate of data packet retry, and other relevant parameters. This is not configurable.

Infinity: Firmware recovery using TFTP

Introduction

All NFT devices have dual-firmware image support, so it is very difficult to damage both firmware images. In the case that both images are damaged, all NFT devices are equipped with firmware recovery functionality. This applies to all NFT devices.

Contact the LigoWave support team ([email protected]) for more information about firmware recovery.
When is recovery required?

Recovery is required when both of the firmware images installed on the device’s flash memory become corrupted. This happens when the device is turned off during a firmware upgrade (e.g. power cuts, cable problems, etc). When the device cannot boot, it goes into recovery mode.

If the device is not accessible over the web or there is no ping response, follow the firmware recovery procedure.

Firmware recovery using TFTP

Step 1. Download, install, and run a TFTP server on your PC.

TFTPD 32 for Windows:

https://bitbucket.org/phjounin/tftpd64/downloads

TFTPD-HPA for Linux:

Use a command from the Linux shell:

 sudo apt-get install tftpd-hpa

Step 2. Download the newest appropriate firmware from the LigoWave website here.

Step 3. Rename the downloaded firmware file to fwupdate.bin and move it to the TFTP server directory.

It is important to change the file extension from .img to .bin. Otherwise, the device will not download the file from the TFTP server.

Step 4. Turn the device off.

Step 5. Connect the device to a PC directly or through a switch using a cable.

Step 6. Set the PC network adapter IP address to 192.168.2.254 (it must be a TFTP server address).

Ligo-DLB-TFTP4

Step 7. Turn on the device. If everything is configured correctly, the TFTP server will notify about the firmware transfer.

Tftp-2

Step 8. Wait 5 minutes or less until the firmware is properly flashed.

Do not turn off the device during firmware recovery.

Step 9. Once firmware recovery is complete, the device should respond to a ping under its configured IP address.

During firmware recovery, all of the device’s system configurations will be preserved, so there is no need to reset the device to its default settings.

Infinity: How to discover all Infinity devices in a local network?

How to discover all Infinity devices in a local network?

The NFT series of products support the SSDP protocol (firmware v7.5 and later), which allows users to find devices without any external tools or programs. Follow these steps to discover all NFT devices on the network:

Step 1.1. Enable the network discovery function on your Windows PC. Open Windows Explorer, enter the Network section and follow the automatic pop-up at the top of the screen:

Untitled1

Step 1.2. To enable, click Yes, turn on network discovery and file sharing for all public networks.

Untitled3

Users can also enable the network discovery function manually:

Step 2.1. go to Control Panel and click Choose homegroup and sharing options under the Network and Internet section:

Untitled9

Step 2.2. Proceed to Change advanced sharing settings:

Untitled8

Step 2.3. Select Turn on network discovery:

Untitled7

Step 3. All of the available devices should appear in the Network devices section. The scanned devices should now be ready for management:

nft-device-discovery-network

Right click on the device to open the context menu and select Properties to check the IP address and serial number. Users can also reach the device’s web page directly:

nft-device-discovery-network1

MAC OS X

Step 1. Enable the Bonjour service in the Safari browser under Preferences → Advanced (the location depends on the version of the operating system).

safari-enable-bonjour

Step 2. Go to Bookmarks → Bonjour → Web-pages.

NFT-2N_Bonjour

Step 3. Click on the name of the radio (look for a friendly device name).

Infinity: Client Connection Quality (CCQ)

The Client Connection Quality (CCQ) is a connection quality index expressed in percentages. The value shows how effectively the system is running with respect to the maximum possible performance.

The CCQ formula also includes the percentage values of packet re-transmissions and received packet drops. Lastly, the CCQ shows how many packets are retried at the current data rate.

A low CCQ value at a high Tx rate does not mean that the system is slow.

nft-ccq

 

Infinity: Device discovery

Device discovery – a feature that allows the NFT unit to discover other devices within reach of a single multicast packet. Enable this option to turn on this feature.

Bonjour provides a simpler way of discovering devices in a local area network. If the device discovery feature is enabled, the unit will periodically multicast Bonjour service records to the entire local network so as to notify of its presence. This allows the user to find devices without any external tools or programs.

nft-device-discovery

Infinity: Backup configuration

The Backup configuration function allows users to save a file of the current configuration. The saved configuration file is useful when restoring configuration settings in case of device misconfiguration or when uploading a standard configuration to multiple devices without the need to manually configure each device through the web interface.

nft-backup-configuration

Infinity: First-time login to an NFT device

The default IP method is dynamic with a fallback to 192.168.2.66 on NFT devices. If the device is plugged to the network switch, check the IP address on the main DHCP server.
The default IP address of the NFT device is 192.168.2.66.
The default login and password for the NFT device is admin and admin01 respectively.

Follow these steps to access the NFT device for the first time:

Step 1. Configure the PC using a static IP address on the 192.168.2.0 subnet (e.g. 192.168.2.10 with mask 255.255.255.0).

Step 2. Open a web browser and enter the default IP address of the NFT device—192.168.2.66:

default-ip

Step 3. Once the login page is loaded, enter the default administrator login and password: admin and admin01 respectively. Click Login.

nft-first-time-login

Step 4. Agree to the NFT disclaimer. Regulatory domain settings may differ depending on the selected operating country. Users are not allowed to select radio channels and RF output power values other than the permitted values for their respective country and regulatory domain:

nftp-first-time-login2

Infinity: How to enable Telnet?

To enable Telnet, log on to the NFT device’s GUI and navigate to Settings Services Remote Management and slide the Enable Telnet slider.

Enable telnet – use to enable or disable Telnet access to the device.
Telnet port – specify the Telnet port. The Telnet port is 23 by default.

nft-telnet

Infinity: Maximum user support

The NFT 2N device supports a maximum of 256 clients. Each radio (2.4GHz and 5GHz) supports up to 128 concurrent clients.

 

LigoDLB: Quality of Service on LigoDLB devices

Quality of Service: Traffic Optimization

Quality of Service, or QoS, is of particular importance in ensuring continuous transmission of high-bandwidth video and multimedia information.

Traffic optimization is only available when running in Access Point (iPoll 3) and Station (WDS/iPoll 2/iPoll 3) wireless modes.

Incoming traffic has to be marked according to 802.1p or DSCP values to match one of the four queues before reaching the LigoDLB unit.

The QoS on the LigoDLB unit automatically detects and classifies incoming traffic according to 802.1p or DSCP values to match one of the four queues (lowest highest), as provided in the following table:

LigoDLB_QoS

QoS mapping precedence is always performed under 802.1p.

Traffic optimization – select the traffic transmission type for the best data optimization and performance:

  • Data/Data+Voip – for data and data + VoIP traffic.
  • Data+Video+Voip – for data, video, and VoIP traffic.

LigoDLB: How to reset the LigoDLB device to its default settings using LAN with elevated access command prompt?

The computer with the Reset Tool running and the LigoDLB device must be physically connected to the same LAN.
The Reset Tool for LigoDLB devices does not have all of the devices in the network discovery function.

Follow these steps to run the LigoWave Reset Tool and reset the device to its default factory settings:

The Java package must be installed on the operating system for the Reset Tool to work.
To reset, the Reset Tool must be running with administrative privileges enabled.

Linux OS

The package should be installed by running the following command (Ubuntu/Debian version):

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre

Afterwards, click the right mouse button on the Reset Tool and select Open with Sun Java 6 Runtime or via the following command line:

sudo java -jar /home/reset-tool.ligowave.en.v1.2.55051.20170126.1017.jar

Once the Reset Tool starts, follow the steps as shown in the example with Windows 7.

Windows 7 OS

Provided bellow is an example on how to run the Reset Tool with an elevated access command prompt.

Download the Reset Tool locally to your computer from reset-tool.ligowave.en.v1.2.55051.20170126.1017.jar.

Create the Reset Tool folder on drive C:

RapidFire_reset_tool

Copy the Reset Tool executable into this folder:

RapidFire_reset_tool1

Click on Start, select All Programs and then choose Accessories:

RapidFire_reset_tool2

Click the right mouse button on Command Prompt to call out the context menu and choose Run as administrator:

RapidFire_reset_tool3

Command Prompt should now be running with administrator privileges:

RapidFire_reset_tool4

Type in the command cd c:\Reset Tool and hit the Enter key:

RapidFire_reset_tool5

Type in the command java -jar reset-tool.ligowave.en.v1.2.52133.20150721.1615.jar –V:

RapidFire_reset_tool6

If done successfully, the Reset Tool should launch with administrator privileges enabled:

RapidFire_reset_tool7

Steps to reset the device to its default settings:

Note: the new LigoWave Reset Tool is compatible with Deliberant APC devices.

Step 1. Once the Reset Tool starts, reboot the device (physically turn off and turn on the device) and wait until it automatically appears in the list.

Select the device and press Reset:

ligo-dlb-reset-tool_dlb

When the device appears in the Reset Tool, 60 seconds are given to reset it. If this time is elapsed, the device will boot up normally.

Step 2. For a full device reset, the 4 last symbols of the serial number have to be entered.

RapidFire_reset_tool9

Step 3. The serial number can be found on the device’s casing, the box, using the device discovery, and in the UI status menu.

ligo-dlb-reset-tool4

Step 4. Status: Resetting indicates that the LigoDLB device is being reset to the default settings:

RapidFire_reset_tool10

Step 5. Status: Booting device indicates that the LigoDLB device has been successfully reset to the default factory settings and that it is starting to boot:

RapidFire_reset_tool11

Step 6. When the status Reset complete appears, you will be able to log into device:

RapidFire_reset_tool12-dlb

The default IP address of the LigoDLB is: 192.168.2.66.
The default login and password for the LigoDLB device are admin and admin01 respectively.

LigoDLB: How to revert the device from NFT firmware?

The following steps are intended for devices that were upgraded to NFT firmware following the HotSpot guide for the LigoDLB (LigoDLB configuration scenarios).

Step 1. Download the latest firmware for the LigoDLB unit from LigoWave’s website here.

Step 2. Download one of the default configuration images:

Step 3. Upgrade the LigoDLB unit using the latest firmware twice to set the back-up firmware image for dual-boot.

Note: LigoDLB 5ac series does not have dual-boot, so it is enough to upgrade firmware once.

Step 4. Upgrade the LigoDLB unit using the default configuration image.

Step 5. Perform a reset to default settings.

LigoDLB: Smart channel width

Smart channel width – select this option to enable smart channel width on the station. The station will automatically connect to an AP in all channel widths. This option allows the LigoDLB station to automatically change the channel width in case of an unsuccessful connection to an AP as long as the connection to the AP is established.

LigoDLB: How to test devices in Indoors

There are a few simple steps for testing device configurations indoors or at very short distances between radios.

To test devices with N connectors, use RF cables with 50–60dB attenuators.

Do not mix up V and H polarities.

If the devices have integrated antennas, indoor tests should not be performed due to bad results from signal reflections. When choosing to test indoors, minimize possible damage by following these guidelines:

Set Tx power to 0. Signal levels should be set to approx. –50dBm.

Signal levels higher than –25dBm can damage radio hardware elements.

If signal levels at 0 Tx power are still too high, place the devices out of clear line of sight. Putting cardboard or foam between the devices or pointing both devices at the ceiling may also help.

 

 

 

LigoDLB: How to find OIDs?

An Object Identifier or OIDs is a name that is used to identify a specific object. In order to find all of the OID from a selected device, the Net-SNMP package and the SNMP-walk tool are required.

For Windows users

Step 1. Download it from the Net-SNMP website and install.

Step 2. Open the cmd command prompt window and run the following command:

snmpwalk.exe -c public -v1 -On 192.168.2.66

LigoDLB_oids

Step 3. There is also a command for using external MIBs:

snmpwalk.exe -c public -v1 192.168.2.66 MIB [MIB name]

LigoDLB_oids1

Download the LigoDLB proprietary MIBs from here.

For Linux users

Step 1. Install the SNMP packages:

apt-get install snmp

Step 2. Open the terminal and run the following command:

snmpwalk 192.168.2.66 -c public -v1 . -On

Step 3. To add external MIBs, use the provided command:

snmpwalk 192.168.2.66 -c public -v1 -m /home/ligodlb.mib

Download the LigoDLB proprietary MIBs from here.

LigoDLB: How to upgrade a device using SSH?

Introduction

There may be cases when it is beneficial or even necessary to update the firmware on a device without using the web browser. It is possible to update the firmware by using SSH and the fwupdate command. This article serves as a walk-through for getting the image onto the device and then flashing it.

Getting the image onto the device

The first step of flashing an image in the shell is getting the firmware image onto the device. There are two easy ways to do this: using SFTP to upload the image onto the device, or using wget from the device to download the image from an external source.

Instructions for Windows users

Step 1. Run WinSCP. Fill out the following fields:

Host name – device IP address (default 192.168.2.66)
Usernameadmin
Password – device login password (default: admin01)
Press Login to initiate an SSH connection to the device.

scp

Note: a warning message may appear after pressing Login. To continue the login process, press Yes.

warning

Step 2. In the next window, go to the /tmp directory. Then copy the fwupade.bin file to the /tmp directory.

ligo-dlb-ssh-upgrade-winscp

Step 3. Run PuTTY. In the Host Name field, type the device’s IP address and press Open.

4

Note: a warning message may appear after pressing Open. To continue the login process, press Yes.

5

Step 4. Type in the username and the password in the next window.

Usernameadmin
Password – device’s password (default: admin01)

ligo-dlb-ssh-upgrade

Step 5. Navigate to the /tmp directory.

cd /tmp

ligo-dlb-ssh-upgrade01

Step 6. Rename the previously uploaded file to fwupdate.bin.

mv APCPE.QM-1.v7.50.7643.img fwupdate.bin

ligo-dlb-ssh-upgrade1

Step 7. Type the command fwupdate –m to start the firmware upgrade.

fwupdate -m
ligo-dlb-ssh-upgrade2

Do not turn off the device during the firmware upgrade.

Step 8. If PuTTY closes automatically, this confirms the successful start of the upgrade.

Step 9. Once the firmware upgrade is complete, the device should respond to a ping using the configured IP address.

Instructions for Linux users

Download the latest firmware and open the Terminal.

Step 1. Rename the downloaded firmware to fwupdate.bin.

mv APCPE.QM-1.v7.50.7643.img fwupdate.bin

Step 2. Copy the firmware image to the device’s /tmp directory.

scp /home/fwupdate.bin [email protected]:/tmp

Step 3. Log onto the device using SSH.

ssh [email protected]

Usernameadmin

Password – device’s password (default: admin01)

Step 4. Type in the command fwupdate –m to start the firmware upgrade.

fwupdate -m
Do not turn off the device during the firmware upgrade.

Step 5. Once the firmware upgrade is complete, the device should respond to a ping using the configured IP address.

LigoDLB: Wireless Bridge and ARPNAT

A bridge is a device that separates two or more network segments within one logical network (e.g. a single IP subnet). The job of the bridge is to examine the destination of the data packets one at a time and to decide whether or not to pass the packets to the other side of the Ethernet segment. The result is a faster and quieter network with less collisions. In the OSI model, bridging acts in the first two layers, below the network layer.

The principle of ARPNAT is similar to NAT regarding IP networks, except that NAT works one layer deeper. Instead of translating the IP address, the router translates between the MAC hardware address on its side. If something on the wired side of the router makes an ARP request for the MAC address of an IP on the wireless side, then the router forwards the request as if it came from the router. When the response comes back, it mangles that too. Instead of passing back the real MAC (which lives on the wireless network), the router gives its own wired MAC address. Then, when it receives the frames for the IP addresses on the wireless network, it forwards them through. It does this to both sides of the bridge.

The following is an example of ARPNAT:

1. The Client PC asks what the MAC address of 192.168.1.67 is and asks to tell this to 192.168.1.5. This is a broadcast ARP request over wired Ethernet.
2. The DLB unit (works as a STA) sees the ARP request and forwards the broadcast onto the wireless network as “What is the MAC address of 192.168.1.67. Tell it to 192.168.1.66” (this is DLB unit’s IP; remember that the Client was 192.168.1.5, so it is changed now).
3. The DLB unit (works as an AP), which has the IP 192.168.1.67, responds with a result that is sent to 192.168.1.66. For example, the result is 00:19:23:66:12:56.
4. The DLB unit (works as a STA) receives the response. It does some modifications and sends that request back to the Client PC as “192.168.1.67 is at 00:12:23:55:66:77“. This MAC is the MAC address of the DLB unit (STA) itself.
5. So, if the Client wants to talk to the AP, it will talk to the DLB unit (STA), which will forward those frames to the AP.

When a bridge is installed between two networks, it gathers the packets from one network and repeats them to the other and vice-versa. This way, the nodes on one network can talk to the nodes on the other. Bridges also have features such as broadcast filtering, allowing for greater efficiency and reduced traffic. Therefore, in its most simple form, a bridge is a two-port network device that connects two network segments. Some advanced implementation of bridging can monitor traffic and determine which nodes are on which segment and later use this information while forwarding packets. The main factor to note is the fact that bridging takes place in the data-link layer of the OSI reference model.

LigoDLB: Is iPoll 2 compatible with iPoll?

Due to the changes in the main proprietary protocol mechanism of the LigoDLB, iPoll 2 is not compatible with iPoll 1. To set up iPoll 2 on Deliberant APC and LigoDLB devices, upgrade to the latest firmware, which can be found on LigoWave’s website.

LigoDLB: How to test packet passthrough?

The following steps should be performed to identify the maximum packet size that can be sent between devices:

Equipment for testing:

Linux PC 1 and Linux PC 2 (Cisco switches can also be used instead of PCs).

Once the wireless link is connected, make sure that the ping works by sending small packets using the following command:

ping remote_device_ip

If a ping response is received, change the Linux PC Ethernet interface MTU size with the following command:

ifconfig eth0 mtu 3500
Might require root privileges (on Ubuntu, use “sudo”)

In the provided example, the network interface is called eth0. However, it can be named eth1 or any similar name on other machines.

Once the MTU value is changed on both Linux PCs, run the ping command with the attributes -M do to send the packet without any fragmentation because the ping function performs fragmentation by default.

ping remote_device_ip -s 3500 -M do

-s indicates the packet size. The example is for 3,500 bytes.

MTU-testing1

When using a remote Linux PC, you can run the tcpdump tool. See the screenshot below:

MTU-Testing2

LigoDLB: Enable NAT

Network Address Translation, or NAT, functions first by transforming the private IP address of the packets originating from hosts on the user’s network, so that they appear to be coming from a single public IP address, and second by restoring the destination public IP address to the appropriate private IP address for packets entering the private network. The group of PCs on the user’s network would then appear as a single client to the WAN interface. This is used in Router mode.

LigoDLB: How to reset a LigoDLB device using the reset button?

All LigoDLB devices have a reset button near the Ethernet port. To reset the device, hold the button for 5 seconds and then release it. When the reset process starts, the device’s LEDs will begin blinking.

There is no need to physically reboot the device during reset using the reset button.

IMG_1967

LigoDLB: How to discover all LigoDLB devices in a local network?

The LigoDLB series of products support the SSDP protocol (firmware v7.5 and later), which allows users to find devices without any external tools or programs. Follow these steps to discover all DLB devices on the network:

Step 1.1. Enable the network discovery function on your Windows PC. Open Windows Explorer, enter the Network section and follow the automatic pop-up at the top of the screen:

Untitled1

Step 1.2. To enable, click Yes, turn on network discovery and file sharing for all public networks.

Untitled3

Users can also enable the network discovery function manually:

Step 2.1. go to Control Panel and click Choose homegroup and sharing options under the Network and Internet section:

Untitled9

Step 2.2. Proceed to Change advanced sharing settings:

Untitled8

Step 2.3. Select Turn on network discovery:

Untitled7

Step 3. All of the available devices should appear in the Network devices section. The scanned devices should now be ready for management:

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Right click on the device to open the context menu and select Properties to check the IP address and serial number. Users can also reach the device’s web page directly:

Untitled5

MAX OS X

Step 1. Enable the Bonjour service in the Safari browser under Preferences → Advanced (the location depends on the version of the operating system).

safari-enable-bonjour

Step 2. Go to Bookmarks → Bonjour → Web-pages.

LigoDLB-5_Bonjour

Step 3. Click on the name of the radio (look for a friendly device name).

LigoDLB: How to enable Telnet?

To enable Telnet, log on to the NFT device’s GUI and navigate to Settings Services Remote Management and slide the Enable Telnet slider.

Enable telnet – use to enable or disable Telnet access to the device.
Telnet port – specify the Telnet port. The Telnet port is 23 by default.

ligo-dlb-telnet

LigoDLB: Channel width: 5/10/20/40MHz

Channel width – select the width of the operating radio channel. The LigoDLB device supports 5, 10, 20, and 40MHz channel widths.

The Access Point and Station devices must have the same configuration regarding channel width.

LIGO-DLB-CHANNEL-WIDTH

 

 

LigoDLB: Auto data rate

Auto data rate algorithm

Auto data rate algorithm – a data rate is automatically selected by the mechanism that evaluates the current performance of the device based on the current signal level, data packet retry rate, and other parameters. The data rate fallback drops the MCS step by step until the data can be transferred. The auto data rate should always be used in noisy environments.

ligo-dlb-auto-data-rate

LigoDLB: How to reset the administrator’s password using LAN?

The only way to gain access to the web management system, if the administrator password is lost or forgotten, is to reset LigoDLB’s configuration to its default factory settings.
A computer running the Reset Tool and the LigoDLB device must be physically connected to the same LAN network using a switch.
The Reset Tool for DLB devices does not have all of the devices stored in the network discovery function.
The Java package must be installed on the operating system for the Reset Tool to run.
The Reset Tool must be running with administrative privileges enabled.

Follow these steps to run the LigoWave Reset Tool and to reset the device to its default factory settings:

Linux OS

The package should be installed by running the following command (Ubuntu/Debian version):

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre

Afterwards, click the right mouse button on the Reset Tool file and select Open with Sun Java 6 Runtime from the context menu.

Windows 7 OS

A shortcut with the following data must be created on the Windows 7 operating system:

General path: %ProgramFiles%\Java\jre6\bin\java.exe" -jar "%HOMEPATH%/Desktop/reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
Example: "C:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jre7\bin\java.exe" -jar "C:\Users\tester\Desktop\reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
reset-admin

Once the shortcut is created, it must be executed with administrative privileges enabled by right-clicking on it and selecting the option Run as Administrator from the context menu.

Step 1. Download the Reset Tool to your computer from reset-tool.ligowave.en.v1.2.51166.20150304.1257.

Note: the LigoDLB reset tool is not compatible with Deliberant APC devices.

Step 2. Run the executable file. The Reset Tool will launch:

ligo-dlb-reset-tool-main

Step 3. Once the Reset Tool launches, reboot the device (physically turn off and turn on the device) and wait until it automatically appears. Then select the device and press Reset:

ligo-dlb-reset-tool

When the device appears in the Reset Tool, the user is given 60 seconds to reset it. If the time is elapsed, the device boots up as usual.

Step 4. For a full device reset, the 4 last symbols of the serial number have to be entered.

ligo-dlb-reset-tool3

 Step 5. The serial number can be found on the device’s casing, the box, using the device discovery, and in the UI status menu.

ligo-dlb-reset-tool4

Step 6. Status: Resetting indicates that the DLB device is being reset to the default settings:

ligo-dlb-reset-tool5

Step 7. Status: Booting device indicates that the DLB device has been successfully reset to the default factory settings and that it is starting to boot:

ligo-dlb-reset-tool6

The default IP address of the DLB device is: 192.168.2.66.
The default login and password for the DLB device are admin and admin01 respectively.

 

LigoDLB: Backup configuration

The Backup configuration function allows users to save a file of the current configuration. The saved configuration file is useful when restoring configuration settings in case of device misconfiguration or when uploading a standard configuration to multiple devices without the need to manually configure each device through the web interface.

Restore configuration – click to upload an existing configuration file to the device. Once the configuration file is uploaded, the new configuration will be effective as soon as the Save changes button is pressed.

ligo-dlb-backup-main

If necessary, click to save the current configuration file:

ligo-dlb-save-backup

LigoDLB: Device discovery

Device discovery – select this option to enable the LigoDLB discovery function. This allows the discovery of LigoDLB units within reach of a single multicast packet.

Bonjour provides a generic method for discovering devices on a local area network. When the device discovery feature is enabled, the device periodically multicasts Bonjour service records to the entire local network so as to announce its existence.
ligo-dlb-device-discovery

 

 

LigoDLB: Public status page

Public status page – this option enables or disables the permission for not-logged users to view the status page.

LIGO-DLB-Public-page

LigoDLB: Client Connection Quality (CCQ)

Client Connection Quality (CCQ) is the connection quality index expressed in percentages. It shows the ratio of current system efficiency to the maximum theoretical system capacity.

The CCQ index also indicates the percentage value for transmitted packet retries, received packet drop, and the quantity of packets retried at the current data rate.

LIGO-DLB-CCQ-good

LigoDLB: Firmware recovery via TFTP

Introduction

All LigoDLB devices have dual-firmware image support, so it is very difficult to damage both firmware images. In the case that both images are damaged, all LigoDLB devices are equipped with firmware recovery functionality. This applies to LigoDLB 5 and LigoDLB 2 series of devices.

Contact the LigoWave support team ([email protected]) for more information about firmware recovery.
When is recovery required?

Recovery is required when both of the firmware images installed on the device’s flash memory become corrupted. This happens when the device is turned off during a firmware upgrade (e.g. power cuts, cable problems, etc). When the device cannot boot, it goes into recovery mode.

If the device is not accessible over the web, there is no ping response, and the Reset Tool cannot find the device, follow the firmware recovery procedure.

Firmware recovery using TFTP

Step 1. Download, install, and run a TFTP server on your PC.

TFTPD 32 for Windows:

https://bitbucket.org/phjounin/tftpd64/downloads

TFTPD-HPA for Linux:

Use a command from the Linux shell:

 sudo apt-get install tftpd-hpa

Step 2. Download the newest appropriate firmware from the LigoWave website here.

Step 3. Rename the downloaded firmware file to fwupdate.bin and move it to the TFTP server directory.

It is important to change the file extension from .img to .bin. Otherwise, the device will not download the file from the TFTP server.

Step 4. Turn the device off.

Step 5. Connect the device to a PC directly or through a switch using a cable.

Step 6. Set the PC network adapter IP address to 192.168.2.254 (it must be a TFTP server address).

Ligo-DLB-TFTP4

Step 7. Turn on the device. If everything is configured correctly, the TFTP server will notify about the firmware transfer.

Tftp-2

Step 8. Wait 5 minutes or less until the firmware is properly flashed.

Do not turn off the device during firmware recovery.

Step 9. Once firmware recovery is complete, the device should respond to a ping under its configured IP address.

During firmware recovery, all of the device’s system configurations will be preserved, so there is no need to reset the device to its default settings.

LigoDLB: Maximum user support for 11n

All products within the LigoDLB series that are running in Access Point (Auto WDS) mode support a maximum of 127 CPEs.

The recommended maximum number of CPEs is 70.

LigoDLB: MTU size

The LigoDLB 5 series products support packet sizes of up to 3,764 bytes (data payload) without any external configuration.

The LigoDLB 5 ac series products support packet sizes of up to 3,550 bytes (data payload) without any external configuration.

The LigoDLB 2 series products support packet sizes of up to 3,764 bytes (data payload) without any external configuration.

LigoDLB: What are good signal levels?

The recommended signal level range for optimum performance is from –35dBm to –60dBm. Links may also work with lower signal level modulations ranging from –60dbm to –85dBm.

On the access point side:

LIGO-DLB-SIGNAL-LEVEls-good

On the station side:

LIGO-DLB-SIGNAL-LEVEls-good-sta

If the signal level is more than –35dBm, it is too high for the device.

LigoDLB: First-time login to a LigoDLB device

The default IP address of the LigoDLB device is 192.168.2.66.
The default login and password for the LigoDLB device is admin and admin01 respectively.

Follow these steps to access the LigoDLB device for the first time:

Step 1. Configure the PC using a static IP address on the 192.168.2.0 subnet (e.g. 192.168.2.10 with mask 255.255.255.0).

Step 2. Open a web browser and enter the default IP address of the AP device—192.168.2.66:

default-ip

Step 3. Once the login page is loaded, enter the default administrator login and password: admin and admin01 respectively. Click Login.

LIGO-DLB-LOGIN-WINDOW

Step 4. Agree to the LigoDLB disclaimer. Regulatory domain settings may differ depending on the selected operating country. Users are not allowed to select radio channels and RF output power values other than the permitted values for their respective country and regulatory domain:

Ligo-DLB-Agreement

LigoDLB: How to download the troubleshooting file?

The troubleshooting file contains valuable information about the device’s configuration, routers, log files, command outputs, and other data. This is helpful when submitting problems to the support team.

Follow these steps to download the troubleshooting file via the GUI:

Step 1. Login to the LigoDLB GUI via a web browser:

LIGO-DLB-Login

Step 2. To download the troubleshooting file, navigate to the Maintenance tab, click on Troubleshooting in the side-bar menu, and then click Download:

LIGO-DLB-TORUBLE-MENU

Step 3. The troubleshooting file has been successfully downloaded to your computer:

LIGO-DLB-TROUBLESHOOT-FILE

LigoDLB: How to connect a single-polarity antenna to a MiMo device

A SISO antenna should be connected to the main N connector that is marked V.

LIGO-DLB-sisoantenna1

The main N connector is on the opposite side of the LED RSSI indicators.

A 50 ohm terminator should be mounted onto the secondary N connector.

In the device wireless configuration section/advanced radio settings section, set the MAX 802.11n MCS Index to MCS7 (150Mbps) to enable the SISO 1×1 mode.

LIGO-DLB-SISO-ANTENA

LigoDLB: How to upgrade the firmware?

It is highly recommended to use firmware images of the same version to guarantee successful link performance between LigoDLB devices.

This article discusses how to properly upgrade the firmware on LigoDLB equipment. Follow these steps to upgrade your device’s firmware:

Step 1. The current version of the device’s firmware is shown in the upper left corner of the web interface. To update the device’s firmware, click the Update link found at the name of the current firmware:

LIGO-DLB-UPGRADE-1

Step 2. Select the firmware file from your computer and press Upload:

LIGO-DLB-UPGRADE-2

The new firmware image is uploaded onto the controller’s temporary memory. It is necessary to save the firmware onto the device’s permanent memory.

Wait until the firmware is uploaded:

LIGO-DLB-UPGRADE-3

Step 3. Once the firmware is successfully uploaded onto the LigoDLB device, click Upgrade:

LIGO-DLB-UPGRADE-42

Step 4. The upgrade should take approx. 2 minutes. The device will reboot at the end.

LIGO-DLB-UPGRADE-5

Do not turn off and do not disconnect the device from the power supply during firmware upgrade. Otherwise, the device could be damaged.

LigoPTP: QoS on LigoWave devices

Quality of Service (QoS) in detail

Firmware version x.95 and later have granted the LigoPTP PRO and LigoPTP MIMO series of devices QoS functionality. It is a major improvement in the quality control applicable to the different kinds of traffic.

QoS allows users to adjust the distribution of the 4 different types of traffic.  The process places the data into 4 queues that are then processed based on their priority levels. The prioritization policy is strict, which means that higher-priority data is sent first and lower priority is sent afterwards. Packets are prioritized using VLAN/CoS (layer 2) or IP/ToS/DSCP (layer 3) marks.

QoS allows LigoWave’s customers to provide higher-quality services with multiple types of traffic (data, voice, video, etc.) on the same network.

QoS

Figure 1. QoS graph

QoS can be adjusted using three sliders for the different kinds of traffic: voice, video, and best effort.

Voice traffic has the highest priority and will always be added to the queue first. Background traffic, which is without priority (priority 0) by default, is adjusted according to your preferences applicable to the other kinds of traffic. The background traffic margin is controlled by an algorithm that takes into account both the current priorities for voice, video, and best effort traffic and the current link capacity. The algorithm also automatically adjusts the values in accordance with the changing environments. The main control window is displayed in the picture below:

QoSv2Figure 2. QoS control window

QoS is controlled on the Master’s side, after which the settings are applied to a remote node (Slave) device. QoS operates on both sides and controls all incoming traffic.

LigoPTP: Mitigating the tidal fading effect mechanism

Signal fading is a common issue among links installed over seas and in rainy locations. Due to tidal fading, links are constantly undergoing signal decrease and increase cycles. These events—arbitrarily defined as having fades relative to free space powers in excess of 20dB for a duration of 2 hours or more—are believed to be generally due to extreme subrefractive conditions.

Tidal effect

Figure 1. The impact of the tidal fading effect on signal strength [1]

 

Analysis of synoptic weather conditions and nearby rawinsonde data [1] during four sustained deep fading periods showed atmospheric conditions consistent with extreme subrefraction. A tidal fading effect-based mechanism derived from the research conducted in [2] was therefore constructed.

Tidal mechanism results

Figure 2. The effect under the mitigated tidal fading mechanism [2]

The first prototype of the mitigated tidal fading effect mechanism was implemented starting from x.95 firmware, which helps to keep constant signal strength over sustained periods of time by using the slow frequency hopping approach. The frequency that is used by the algorithm is left for the user to choose. The only requirement is to select at least 2 frequencies, preferably with a gap no less than 100MHz between each instance. The signal level threshold must be selected based on the current link conditions.

[1] Fade statistics and propagation events at C band for two overwater, line-of-sight propagation paths over a 1-year period – Julius Goldhirsh, G. Daniel Dockery, Bert H. Musiani.

[2] Slow Frequency Hopping for Mitigating Tidal Fading on Rural Long Distance Over-Water Wireless Links – Alex Macmillan, Mahesh K. Marina, and Jhair Tocancipa Triana

LigoPTP: How to find OIDs and use MIBs

In order to find all of the OIDs from a selected device, the Net-SNMP package and the SNMP-walk tool are required.

For Windows users

Step 1. Download it from the Net-SNMP website and install.

Step 2. Open the cmd command prompt window and run the following command:

snmpwalk.exe -c public -v1 -On 192.168.2.66

LigoPTP-oid3

Step 3. There is also a command for using external MIBs:

snmpwalk.exe -c public -v1 192.168.2.66 MIB [MIB name]

LigoPTP-oid4

Download the LigoPTP proprietary MIBs from here.

For Linux users

Step 1. Install the SNMP packages:

apt-get install snmp

Step 2. Open the terminal and run the following command:

snmpwalk 192.168.2.66 -c public -v1 . -On

Step 3. To add external MIBs, use the provided command:

snmpwalk 192.168.2.66 -c public -v1 -m /home/LIGO-802DOT11-EXT-MIB.mib

Download the LigoPTP proprietary MIBs from here.

LigoPTP: Network and wireless statistics

The Statistics page displays detailed statistics on the performance of the LigoPTP link. The Statistics page is divided into two sections: Network statistics and W-Jet statistics

Network statistics displays detailed statistics of the Ethernet and Wireless interfaces:

stats12

RX bytes – displays the total number of bytes received through the Ethernet or Wireless interface of the LigoPTP PRO link.
RX packets – displays the total number of packets received through the Ethernet or Wireless interface of the LigoPTP PRO link.
RX errors – displays the total number of corrupted packets received through the Ethernet or Wireless interface of the LigoPTP PRO link.
RX drops – displays the total number of packets dropped by the Ethernet or Wireless interface of the LigoPTP PRO link.
TX bytes – displays the total number of bytes sent through the Ethernet or Wireless interface of the LigoPTP PRO link.
TX packets – displays the total number of packets sent through the Ethernet or Wireless interface of the LigoPTP PRO link.
TX errors – displays the total number of corrupted packets sent through the Ethernet or Wireless interface of the LigoPTP PRO link.
TX drops – displays the total number of packets dropped by the Ethernet or Wireless interface of the LigoPTP PRO link.

W-Jet is an advanced proprietary wireless protocol that combines special techniques to achieve superior performance and reliability, even over long distances. This table displays the statistical counters of the LigoPTP PRO link communication protocol.

txligo11

MAC address – displays the MAC addresses of the Local and Remote units.
IP address – displays the IP addresses of the Local and Remote units.
TX frames – displays the number of transmitted data frames. The number provided in brackets (+XX) displays the data change since the last page refresh.
RX frames – displays the number of transmitted data frames. The number provided in brackets (+XX) displays the data change since the last page refresh.
TX retry frames % – the percentage of attempts to retransmit data frames. The number provided in brackets (+XX) displays the data change since the last page refresh.

LigoPTP: LigoPTP-3 FCC EIRP rules

Introduction
New rules

LigoPTP 3 products have been certified under FCC Part 90Z rules. This is a licensed band, which is why the rules differ from Part-15 regarding 900MHz, 2.4GHz, and 5GHz unlicensed radios. First, the power (EIRP) limitations are a little different from part-15. Second, any operators of LigoPTP 3 products must obtain a nationwide 3.65GHz license before operating any equipment. Finally, each individual site must be licensed in the FCC ULS database. For more information on the 3.65GHz licensing process, visit this link.

The main purpose of this article is to outline EIRP restrictions, which LigoPTP 3 products must abide by in order to remain compliant with FCC rules.

Software features

The LigoPTP 3 configuration screen provided below shows a the Antenna Gain (dBi) field. When configuring the LigoPTP 3 radio, the gain of the installed antenna must be entered into this field. Once the gain is entered, the software starts to automatically handle all of the EIRP calculations.

365eirp-radio

Rules

Maximum values

LigoPTP 3 EIRP rules are based on frequency and channel size. Each combination of the two may have a specific maximum transmit power and EIRP limit that must be complied with. The following is a chart showing the maximum limits based on frequency and channel size.

fcc1

The power levels provided in the chart show peak output transmit power. The average/conducted output powers may vary and depend on modulation schemes.
Following the rules

There are three main rules to keep in mind when changing Tx power and antenna gain.

  1. The maximum transmit power cannot exceed the value indicated in the Max Tx Power column provided above, given the frequency and channel size.
  2. The EIRP (radio Tx power + antenna gain (dBi) cannot exceed the value indicated in the Max EIRP column provided above, given the frequency and channel size.
  3. There is no limit to antenna gain, as long as the EIRP index does not exceed the value the Max EIRP listed above.

The software handles these rules automatically and does not allow the setting of Tx power and/or EIRP higher than what is allowed.

There are two important configuration options used to control these settings: Transmit Power (%), and Antenna Gain (dBi)

365eirp-power

If it is a LigoPTP 3-18 device, the gain of the antenna is 18dBi, so the value 18 must be entered into this field.

When setting the Tx power, the software retrieves the frequency, channel size, and antenna gain and generates a range of valid values from the minimum to the maximum possible. The indicated percentage value will be applied to this range and will output a valid single Tx power setting that will be saved to the configuration.

All of this is performed in the background, automatically eliminating all of the tedious work regarding compliance maintenance.

LigoPTP: LigoWave 3.65GHz licensing process walkthrough

Introduction

This article is a complete walk-through for users wanting to register and license LigoWave’s 3.65GHz products for use in the United States. The four main steps include:

  1. Obtaining an FRN (FCC Registration Number)
  2. Obtaining a nationwide 3650 license
  3. Examining ULS for nearby 3650 registrations
  4. Registering each LigoWave 3.65 radio with ULS
If any of the details provided in this guide are unclear of if any questions arise, please send us an e-mail to [email protected] and we will gladly provide assistance.
Legal Disclaimer: this guide is offered as an example walkthrough for the FCC process to register and license LigoWave’s 3.65GHz products for use in the United States. LigoWave offers this guide as an example process only and it is not guaranteed to be complete or accurate for every scenario. By completing and submitting these applications, you are electronically signing a legally binding agreement. Please consult your legal advisor before signing anything.
History & rules

In order to stimulate the rapid expansion of broadband services, the FCC has opened the 3650 – 3670 band for terrestrial wireless broadband operations. The band contains a non-exclusive licensing scheme which strikes a balance between an unlicensed approach and an expensive exclusive licensing scheme. Since every fixed station must be licensed, the band will not contain unknown sources of interference (portable phones, SOHO wireless routers, etc). At the same time, the method provides low entry cost and minimal regulatory delay.

For more information on the 3,650–3,670MHz band, follow this link.

Contention-based protocol

LigoPTP 3 products include a restricted contention-based protocol. This means that LigoPTP 3 products are only operable within 3,650–3,675MHz.

3650 cooperation

In order to promote an effective shared use of the spectrum, all 3650 MHz licensees must cooperate and make every effort to avoid harmful interference. There is no first come, first serve rule in this band. If one user has 3650 equipment on a tower, and a competitor wants to install on the same tower, the original user must do what is necessary to work together with the competitor. To facilitate with this process. All radios are licensed in the FCC database (ULS).

Grandfathered satellite earth stations

The 3.65GHz band is also home to a handful of grandfathered FSS (Fixed Satellite Service) operators. In order to protect these band incumbents, then FCC has imposed exclusion zones in which terrestrial broadband operators are not allowed. There are approximately 100 grandfathered earth stations which have 150km circular protection zones. In order to operate these zones approval must be given by the incumbent FSS operator. Additionally, there are three Federal Government radio location stations that have 80km circular protection zones; usage in these zones will only be approved upon successful coordination by the FCC with the NTIA.

The three grandfathered stations are located at:

  • St. Inigoes, MD 38 10 00 N 76 23 00 W
  • Pascagoula, MS 30 22 00 N 88 29 00 W
  • Pensacola, FL 30 21 28 N 87 16 26 W

To see a list of grandfathered stations follow this link.

Obtaining an FRN (FCC Registration Number)

Before applying for a license to operate in the 3.65GHz band in the US, the company or individual applying for the license must obtain an FRN (FCC Registration Number). This is basically the user account for the FCC ULS (Universal Licensing System).

To register an FRN, navigate to the FCC’s official website located here.

Once on the FCC’s website, locate the option FCC Registration Number (FRN) Commission Registration System (CORES) in the main menu (see image). Click on the link to be transferred to the FCC Registration System.

Once in the main menu of the FCC Registration System, select the option to Register and receive your FRN.

365-frnmenu

In the next form, select the appropriate responses (whether you are filing as an individual or as a corporation). If filing as an individual, you will be required to submit your personal social security number. If filing as a corporation, you will be required to submit your corporate tax identification information.

365-frnregistrationtype

You will then be directed to a registration form where you will be required to enter registration/contact information for you and/or your organization.

800px-365-frnregistration

After completing the registration, you will be provided your FRN number. You will need this FRN number in order to apply for licenses, so print or save the form for your records.

 Obtaining a 3.65GHz nationwide license

To apply for a nationwide 3.65GHz license, navigate to the ULS (Universal Licensing System) website located here.

ULS

You will then see the ULS Menu. Since you have already obtained an FRN number, you will want to click the LOG IN option. If you do not have this information, see the section Obtaining an FRN (FCC Registration Number).

365-ulsmenu

On the login screen, enter the FRN number and the password that you have submitted when obtaining the FRN number.

365-ulslogin

After a successful login, you will be redirected to your license manager. To apply for a new license, click the Apply for a New License option in the menu

365-licensemenu

New license

The first option asks what type of radio service the new license will accommodate. In this case you need to choose NN – 3650-3700 MHz.

365-newlicensetype

You will then begin the registration process.

Applicant information

The first section requests applicant information. Here you will be asked to enter information such as business/individual information, address, etc.

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Contact information

The second section requests corporate/individual contact information.

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Application information

The third section marks the beginning of the application information form. In most cases, you will mark no for any exemptions or rule wavers. You also do not need to enter a renewal date, since the 3650 license is good for ten years.

365-applicationinfo

The second part of the third section continues with the application information. On this page, verify that the type of license you are applying for is listed as Nationwide & 3650-3700 MHz.

365-applicationinfo2

General information

The fourth section requests general information about the usage of the license. Check each applicable box and continue.

365-generalinfo

Alien ownership information

The fifth section requests alien ownership information.

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Basic qualification information

The sixth section requests basic qualification information.

365-qualificationinfo

Summary

The seventh section displays a summary of information provided and displays the fees due to complete the application. Please make sure that all of the information is correct.

365-summary

Certification

The eighth and final step in the application process is the electronic signature. Make sure you read and understand all of the certification statements before agreeing and signing the document. After signing, press Submit Application to complete the application process.

365-certification

Confirmation

After submitting the application, continue through the following menus to submit the payment to the FCC. Once the payment is complete, you will be provided with a confirmation of your application’s submission and payment.

365-confirmation
You have now completed the application for the 3,650MHz nationwide license. Once the FCC processes and approves the application, you will then be eligible to operate in the 3,650MHz restricted band.

Once granted nationwide license, it is still necessary to register each LigoPTP radio before using them.
Registering each radio location in ULS

Once the nationwide 3.65GHz license has been obtained, it is then necessary to register each location in the FCC ULS (Universal Licensing System) system.

It is required to register each fixed station in the ULS. This means that both the master and the slave sides must be registered.
Logging into the ULS

After logging into the ULS, the Licenses at a Glance section will be displayed. On the right side of the screen, you will see the Work on this License menu. From this menu, select Register Locations.

365-workonlicense

Locations

Clicking Register Locations will display a list of your current locations. If you are adding a new location, click Add New Location.

365-locations

Application questions

If you are filing for a waiver of the commission’s rules or need to upload attachments, you can do so here.

365-applicationquestions

Location questions

If there is a possibility that the transmitter may have an environmental effect or if it is located in one of the grandfathered earth station areas, you must enter this info here.

365-locationquestions

Site data

In this section, you must enter general information about your transmitter’s site and location.

365-sitedata

  • FCC ASR Number – the antenna structure registration number. If you have already registered this location in the ULS, you can use the previous ASR information you have on file.
  • Site Name – a friendly name that you want to have associated with each location.
  • Transmitter Latitude – the transmitter’s latitude in minutes-seconds.
  • Transmitter Longitude – the transmitter’s longitude in minutes-seconds.
  • City – the city that the transmitter resides in.
  • County/Borough/Parish – the county, borough or parish that the transmitter resides in.
  • State – the state that the transmitter resides in.
  • Elevation of the Site AMSL – the elevation of the site (above mean sea level).
  • Overall Height AGL Without Appurtenances – the height (above ground level) to the highest point of the supporting structure only (without appurtenances).
  • Overall Height AGL With Appurtenances – the overall height (above ground level) of the entire antenna structure to the highest point, including any appurtenances.
  • Support Structure Type – the type of structure the transmitter and antenna will be located on.
Transmitter antenna data

This section contains information about the antenna you will be using with LigoPTP 3 products.

365-transmitterantennadata

  • Manufacturer – the manufacturer of the antenna you are using. (If you are using the integrated LigoPTP 3-18, you may indicate LigoWave).
  • Model Number – the model number of the antenna you are using. (If you are using the integrated LigoPTP 3-18, you may indicate LigoPTP 3-18).
  • Gain – the gain of the antenna you are using (in dBi).
  • Beamwidth – the beamwidth of the antenna you are using. For the LigoPTP 3-18, the beamwidth is 22 degrees.
  • Center Line – the height (above ground level) of the center of the antenna.
  • Azimuth – enter the azimuth of the transmit antenna (in degrees; rounded to one decimal place) clockwise from True North. For omni-directional antennas, indicate the value 360.
  • Elevation Angle – the angle of elevation of the antenna.
  • Polarization – select from the following values:
    • E – elliptical
    • F – 45 degrees
    • H – horizontal
    • J – linear
    • L – left-hand circular
    • R – right-hand circular
    • S – horizontal and vertical
    • T – right and left-hand circular
    • V – vertical
    • X – other (provide a description in an attachment)
Equipment data

This section requests more specific information about the radio transmitter.

365-equipmentdata

LigoPTP 3 and LigoPTP 3 R2 products contain different FCC IDs! Be sure to enter the appropriate FCC ID off the label of your device!
  • FCC ID Number – the FCC ID of the product you are using.
    • For LigoPTP 3 products, it is V2V-PTP3.
    • For LigoPTP 3 R2 products, it is V2V-WMR370.
  • Lower/Center Frequency – the lowest frequency you may use at this location.
  • Upper Frequency – the highest frequency you may use at this location.
  • EIRP – indicate the EIRP (in dBm) radiated by the transmitting antenna.
  • Emission Designator – this designates the transmitter bandwidth (5/10/20MHz) and the emission type. Choose from this list of emission designators based on what bandwidth you will be using:
    • For LigoPTP 3 use:
      • 5MHz: 4M14D7D
      • 10MHz: 8M25D7D
      • 20MHz: 16M7D7D
    • For LigoPTP 3 R2 use:
      • 5MHz: 4M24D7D
      • 10MHz: 8M44D7D
      • 20MHz: 17M2D7D
  • Modulation Scheme – the modulation scheme you will be implementing (BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, etc).
  • Restricted/Unrestricted protocol – LigoWave LigoPTP 3 uses a restricted protocol, meaning it can only operate in 3,650-3,675MHz.
  • Name of transmission protocol – Select Other
  • Description of transmission protocol – in this field, you can enter choose one of the following: Dynamic TDD with Selective Repeat ARQ. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance for sensing clear wireless medium.
Summary

This section displays a summary of information provided and shows the fees due to complete the application. Please make sure that all of the information is correct.

365-sitesummary

Confirmation

If everything is accepted, you will see a confirmation page acknowledging that your application has been submitted. Please allow 2–3 days for the registration to be officially complete.

365-siteconfirmation

LigoPTP: How to determine the hardware model

Newest LigoWave PTP models:

  • LigoPTP 5 Unity: FWBD-1404
  • LigoPTP 5 PRO: FWBD-1400
  • LigoPTP 5 MiMo: FWBD-0100

ligonewgui1

To determine the hardware revision that you are currently using, look at the main status page. You should see a Firmware Version section

ligonewgui3

Legacy LigoWave models

Due to hardware revisions, there was few different firmware versions to choose from. Depending on which hardware revision you have, you will want to load the latest appropriate image.

When uploading firmware, there is an internal check process that does not allow users to upload the wrong firmware. Therefore, if the wrong firmware is uploaded, the upgrade process is unsuccessful.

There are two different models of LigoPTP 5 and LigoPTP 5 R2:

  • WILIBOARD
  • WBD422

Version-status

 

To determine which hardware revision you are currently using, look at the main status page, where you will see the Firmware Version section.

Version-wiliboard

If the firmware is WILI-BRIDGE.WILIBOARD, you will want to download the version of the firmware with WILIBOARD in the title.

Version-wbd422

If the firmware is WILI-BRIDGE.WBD422, you will want to download the version of the firmware with WBD422 in the title.

LigoPTP: How to reset the administrator password?

The only way to gain access to the web management system, if the administrator password is lost or forgotten, is to reset the LigoWave device’s configuration to its default factory settings.
A computer running the Reset Tool and the LigoWave device must be physically connected to the same LAN network using a switch.

Follow these steps to run the LigoWave Reset Tool and to reset the device to its default factory settings:

The Java package must be installed on the operating system for the Reset Tool to run.
The Reset Tool must be running with administrative privileges enabled.

Linux OS

The package should be installed by running the following command (Ubuntu/Debian version):

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre

Afterwards, click the right mouse button on the Reset Tool file and select Open with Sun Java 6 Runtime from the context menu.

Windows 7 OS

A shortcut with the following data must be created on the Windows 7 operating system:

General path: %ProgramFiles%\Java\jre6\bin\java.exe" -jar "%HOMEPATH%/Desktop/reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
Example: "C:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jre7\bin\java.exe" -jar "C:\Users\tester\Desktop\reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
reset-admin

Once the shortcut is created, it must be executed with administrative privileges enabled by right-clicking on it and selecting the option Run as Administrator from the context menu.

Step 1. Download the Reset Tool to your computer from the official LigoWave website here.

Step 2. Run the executable file. The Reset Tool will launch:

11

Step 3. Click Scan to search for all LigoWave devices available on the network:

22

Step 4. Select the necessary device and press Reset:

33

Step 5. The Reset Tool will notify the administrator when to physically turn off and turn on the device:

44

Step 6. Physically turn off and then turn on the device.

Step 7. The device will now wait for the special reset packet. Once the special reset packet is received, the LigoWave device will wait for 300 seconds to verify the reset procedure:

55

Step 8. Physically turn off and then turn on the device once more.

Step 9. The LigoWave device will reboot and reset to its default settings:

777

Step 10. The LigoWave device has now successfully been reset to its default factory settings.

reset-device-6

Step 11. The LigoWave device should now be configured under its default factory settings. Click the right mouse button on the appropriate device and launch the GUI:

reset5li

The default IP address of the LigoPTP device is 192.168.2.66.
The default login name and password for the LigoPTP are admin and admin01 respectively.

LigoPTP: Data rate fallback and auto data rate

Dynamic algorithm

A dynamic algorithm (or auto data rate) is when a data rate is selected automatically by the mechanism that evaluates the performance of the device based on the current signal level, rate of data packet retry, and other relevant parameters.

Data rate fallback is the reduction of the data rate. When it is operating in Normal mode, it gradually reduces the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) until the data can pass through. When the data rate fallback is set to Aggressive, the MCS is decreased by 2 steps until it can pass the data through. The dynamic algorithm and aggressive fallback have to be used in noisy environments.

dynamicnoaml

dynamicaggresive

Fixed algorithm

A fixed algorithm is when a data rate is a fixed value (MCS).

The main difference between the dynamic algorithm and the fixed algorithm is that the fixed algorithm will always try to send data under the selected MCS rather then decreasing the currently selected MCS to the value at which the retry rate is lower.

The fixed algorithm does not take into account signal level or the amount of retried packets.  The data rate is only decreased when the device cannot send the current data at the fixed data rate. The data rate fallback mechanism turns on in such a case.

Data rate fallback operating in Normal mode gradually reduces the MCS until the data can pass through. When the data rate fallback is set to Aggressive, the MCS is decreased by 2 steps until it can pass the data through. A fixed data rate is best suited for operation in clean radio environments.

fixednormal

fixedaggresive

LigoPTP: First-time login to an LigoPTP device

The default IP address of the LigoPTP device is 192.168.2.66.
The default login and password of the LigoPTP device are admin and admin01 respectively.

Follow these steps to access the LigoPTP device for the first time:

Step 1. Configure your PC using a static IP address on the 192.168.2.0 subnet (e.g. 192.168.2.10 with mask 255.255.255.0).

Step 2. Open a web browser and enter the default IP address of the AP device—192.168.2.66:

default-ip

Step 3. Once the login page is loaded, enter the default administrator login information (login: admin; password: admin01) and click Login:

ligotrouble

Step 4. Agree to the disclaimer of the LigoPTP device. Regulatory domain settings may differ depending on the selected operating country. Users are not allowed to select radio channels and RF output power values other than the permitted values for their respective country and regulatory domain:

ligofirsttime

LigoPTP: How to upgrade the firmware?

It is highly recommended to use firmware images of the same version to guarantee successful link performance between LigoWave units.

Follow these steps to upgrade your device’s firmware:

Step 1. To update your device’s firmware, navigate to the Configuration > Maintenance menu:

ligoupgrade1

Step 2. Press Upload firmware and select the firmware file from your computer:

ligoupgrade

Step 3. Once the firmware is successfully uploaded onto the LigoWave device, click Upgrade:

ligouploudcompl

Do not switch off and do not disconnect the device from the power supply during the firmware upgrade process because the device may become damaged.

LigoPTP: How to download the troubleshooting file?

The troubleshooting file is an extremely useful resource for the technical support team as it contains valuable information about the device’s configuration, routes, log files, command outputs, and other important information.

Follow these steps to download the troubleshooting file via the GUI:

Step 1. Log in to the LigoPTP GUI via a web browser:

ligotrouble

Step 2. To download the troubleshooting file, navigate to Configuration > Maintenance:

ligotrouble22

Step 3. Click the Download button next to Download troubleshooting file:

During the gathering of statistics, the wireless link is interrupted for a short period of time because the radio is running the Site Survey tool in the background.

ligotrouble2

Step 4. The troubleshooting file should now be downloaded to your computer:

ligotrouble3

LigoPTP: How to discover all LigoWave devices in the network?

The Reset Tool allows administrators to discover all LigoWave devices present in the local area network and to easily restore the default configurations of these devices.

Follow these steps to discover LigoWave device in the network:

Step 1. Download the Reset Tool to your computer from here.

Step 2. Run the executable file. The Reset Tool will launch:

reset-ligo2

Step 3. Click Scan to search for all LigoWave devices available on the network:

reset-ligo24

Step 4. The Reset Tool will now display all LigoWave devices available on your network. The scanned devices will now be ready to be managed:

ligoreset3

LigoPTP: CLI (Command Line Interface)

Command Line Interface Management

The Command Line Interface, or CLI, software is a configuration shell for LigoPTP devices. CLI is an alternative way of configuring the device. It is not intended to be the main device management method. Using CLI, the operator can test the authentication parameters, change the administrator’s password, reboot the device, reset the device to its default settings, see the device configuration, or view the device status.

All of the key shortcuts available in the CLI mode are listed in the table below:

CLI keys

CLI Access

Use the SSH client application (e.g. Putty) to access the CLI of the WILI-S-based device.

Make sure that the SSH server is properly configured.

Login

Enter the administrator login information as displayed in the command prompt.

Default administrator login information:

  • User Name: admin
  • Password: admin01

login

Passwords will not appear on the screen for safety purposes.

After a successful login, enter the help command to get the list of available CLI commands:

help

ligoCLI

List off all CLI commands:

logout
reboot
reset-to-defaults
ping <ip>
telnet <ip>
show config
save config
show gateway
set gateway <gateway>
show software version
shell
linktest [frames <packet count>] [pkt-size <packet size>] [sessions <sessiont>] [peer <peer number>] [ip <remote IP>]
show interface list
show interface <interface> mac
show interface <interface> ip
set interface <interface> ip <ip/subnet mask>
show interface <interface> wireless-mode
set interface <interface> wireless-mode <ap, station>
show interface <interface> ssid
set interface <interface> ssid <ssid>
show interface <interface> ssid-broadcast
set interface <interface> ssid-broadcast
no interface <interface> ssid-broadcast
show interface <interface> security
set interface <interface> security <open, wpa2-psk>
        wpa2-psk encr aes pass <pass>
show interface <interface> channel
set interface <interface> channel <channel>
set interface <interface> channel-auto <channel,channel,...>
set interface <interface> txpower <txpower>
set interface <interface> up
set interface <interface> down
show interface <interface> peers
set interface <interface> vlan <vlan id>
no interface <interface> vlan <vlan id>
Examples of how to use CLI commands:

To change the wireless security setting, type the following command and press the Enter key:

set interface ra0 security open

To view what channels the radio is working on, type the following command and press Enter:

show interface ra0 channel

ligowaveinterfacechan

To check the current radio SSID, type the following command and press Enter:

show interface ra0 ssid

ligoshowinterface

Type logout to leave the CLI mode:

logout

LigoPTP: How to test packet passthrough?

The following steps should be performed to identify the maximum packet size that can be sent between devices:

Equipment for testing:

Linux PC 1 and Linux PC 2 (Cisco switches can also be used instead of PCs).

Once the wireless link is connected, make sure that the ping works by sending small packets using the following command:

ping remote_device_ip

MTU-testing1

If a ping response is received, change the Linux PC Ethernet interface MTU size with the following command:

ifconfig eth0 mtu 3500
May require root privileges (on Ubuntu, use sudo).

In the provided example, the network interface is called eth0. However, it can be named eth1 or any similar name on other machines.

Once the MTU value is changed on both Linux PCs, run the ping command with the attributes -M do to send the packet without any fragmentation because the ping function performs fragmentation by default.

When using a remote Linux PC, you can run the tcpdump tool. See the screenshot below:

MTU-Testing2

 

 

LigoPTP: What are good signal levels?

The recommended signal level range for optimum performance is from –35dBm to –60dBm. Links may also work with lower signal level modulations ranging from –60dbm to –85dBm.

LigoPTP: How to test devices indoors?

There are a few simple steps for testing device configurations indoors or at very short distances between radios.

To test devices with N connectors, use RF cables with 50–60dB attenuators.

Do not mix up V and H polarities.

If the devices have integrated antennas, indoor tests should not be performed due to bad results from signal reflections. When choosing to test indoors, minimize possible damage by following these guidelines:

Set Tx power to 0.

Do not set the devices in clear line of sight.

Have both units facing the ceiling or ground. Check the signal levels which should be around -50dBm.

A signal level that is higher than -25 dBm can damage the radio hardware.

LigoPTP: How to reset the device to its default settings via ping?

Devices that are missing the reset button and devices with a reset button that is only accessible by disassembling the housing require an external process for easy reset to default factory settings—the ping reset method.

The discovery daemon is launched during device startup—once the Ethernet interface drivers are loaded. The daemon suspends the startup process for 3 seconds and waits for the ICMP echo request packet of 369 bytes. If the packet is received, the discovery daemon resets the device to its default configuration.

It is recommended to use a simple switch (without routing) because Windows clears the static ARP entry and loses connection with the device during device reboot.

For Linux users, follow these steps in order to reset to the device to its default settings:

Step 1. Turn the device off.

Step 2. Obtain the device’s MAC address.

Step 3. Connect a PC to the same physical subnet as the device.

Note: it is usually easier to use a switch between the radio and the computer.

Step 4. Execute the arp -s command to assign the IP address (the IP address should be from the same subnet as the PC) to the device’s MAC address:

arp -s <IP address to assign> <device MAC address>

Step 5. Start pinging the device:

ping <IP address> -s 369

For Windows users:

ping <IP address> -l 369 -t -w 200

Step 6. Power up the device and wait for about 1 minute or more (depending on the device hardware).

Step 7. Stop pinging the device and let it boot up as usual. The device should boot with its default settings.

LigoPTP: Firmware upgrade using SHELL/PUTTY/SSH

Introduction

There may be cases when it is beneficial or even necessary to update the firmware on a device without using the web browser. It is possible to update the firmware by using SSH and the fwupdate command. This article serves as a walk-through for getting the image onto the device and then flashing it.

Getting the image onto the device

The first step of flashing an image in the shell is getting the firmware image onto the device. There are two easy ways to do this: using SFTP to upload the image onto the device, or using wget from the device to download the image from an external source.

Instructions for Windows users

Step 1. Run WinSCP. Fill out the following fields:

Host name – device IP address (default 192.168.2.66)
Usernameadmin
Password – device login password (default: admin01)
Press Login to initiate an SSH connection to the device.

1

Note: a warning message may appear after pressing Login. To continue the login process, press Yes.

2

Step 2. In the next window, go to the /tmp directory. Then copy the fwupdate.bin file to the /tmp directory.

ligowinscp

Step 3. Run PuTTY. In the Host Name field, type the device’s IP address and press Open.

4

Note: a warning message may appear after pressing Open. To continue the login process, press Yes.

5

Step 4. Type in the username and the password in the next window.

Usernameadmin
Password – device’s password (default: admin01)

6

 Step 5. Type in the shell command and press Enter. You are now ready to start the firmware upgrade.

shell

7

Step 6Navigate to the /tmp directory.

cd /tmp

8

Step 7. Rename the previously uploaded file to fwupdate.bin.

mv LIGO-PTP.FWBD-1400.v6.94-3.rt3883.LIGO.PTP.en_US.47840.130820.0352.img fwupdate.bin

ligoputty

Step 8. TType the command fwupdate –m to start the firmware upgrade.

fwupdate -m

10

Do not turn off the device during the firmware upgrade.

 Step 9. If the start of the upgrade is successful, a message will appear regarding the start.

/sbin/fwupdate: About to run firmware update

11

Step 10. Once the firmware upgrade is complete, the device should respond to a ping using the configured IP address.

Instructions for Linux users

Download the latest firmware and open the Terminal.

Step 1. Rename the downloaded firmware to fwupdate.bin.

mv LIGO-PTP.FWBD-1400.v6.94-3.rt3883.LIGO.PTP.en_US.47840.130820.0352.img fwupdate.bin

Step 2. Copy the firmware image to the device’s /tmp directory.

scp /home/fwupdate.bin [email protected]:/tmp

Step 3. Log onto the device using SSH.

ssh [email protected]

Usernameadmin

Password – device’s password (default: admin01)

Step 4. Type the shell command and press Enter.

shell

Step 5. Type in the command fwupdate –m to start the firmware upgrade.

fwupdate -m
Do not turn off the device during the firmware upgrade.

Step 6. Once the firmware upgrade is complete, the device should respond to a ping using the configured IP address.

LigoPTP: MTU size

LigoPTP 5/4/3/2 and LigoPTP 5 MiMo support packet sizes of up to 1,800 bytes without any external configuration.

LigoPTP 5 PRO supports packet sizes of up to 3,794 bytes without any external configuration.

LigoPTP 5 UNITY supports packet sizes of up to 3,734 bytes without any external configuration.

LigoPTP 620 HP supports packet sizes of up to 10,000 bytes.

LigoPTP 620 S supports packet sizes of up to 1,632 bytes without any external configuration.

LigoPTP: Firmware recovery using TFTP

Introduction

Starting with firmware version 6.93, LigoPTP devices will be equipped with firmware recovery functionality. Only newly purchased products with firmware version 6.93 or later will have firmware recovery via TFTP functionality (note that the usual LigoPTP upgrade from older versions to 6.93 will not add the recovery feature).

As of firmware version 6.94-6, the recovery feature is introduced with the firmware upgrade. This applies only to the PRO series.

Contact our support team at [email protected] to find out whether your PTP unit supports firmware recovery via TFTP.

Products that may need a firmware recovery procedure:

  • LigoPTP PRO series
  • LigoPTP UNITY series (it has two firmware images, making it difficult to damage both)
When is recovery required?

Recovery is required when the firmware installed on the device’s flash memory becomes corrupted. This happens when the device is turned off during a firmware upgrade (e.g. power cuts, cable problems, etc). When the device cannot boot, it goes into recovery mode.

If the device is not accessible over the web, there is no ping response, and the Reset Tool cannot find the device, perform the firmware recovery procedure.

Firmware recovery using TFTP

Step 1. Download, install, and run a TFTP server on your PC.

TFTPD 32 for Windows:

https://bitbucket.org/phjounin/tftpd64/downloads

TFTPD-HPA for Linux:

Use a command from the Linux shell:

 sudo apt-get install tftpd-hpa

Step 2. Download the newest appropriate firmware from the LigoWave website here.

Step 3. Rename the downloaded firmware file to fwupdate.bin and move it to the TFTP server directory.

It is important to change the file extension from .img to .bin. Otherwise, the device will not download the file from the TFTP server.

Step 4. Turn the device off.

Step 5. Connect the device to a PC directly or through a switch using a cable.

Step 6. Set the PC network adapter IP address to 192.168.2.1 (it must be a TFTP server address).

Tftp-1

Step 7. Turn on the device. If everything is configured correctly, the TFTP server will notify about the firmware transfer.

Tftp-2

Step 8. Wait 5 minutes or less until the firmware is properly flashed.

Do not turn off the device during firmware recovery.

Step 9. Once firmware recovery is complete, the device should respond to a ping under its configured IP address.

During firmware recovery, all of the device’s system configurations will be preserved, so there is no need to reset the device to its default settings.